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The mere statement on the part of a religion group that its own beliefs and practices are correct and any contrary beliefs incorrect does not in itself constitute intolerance (ie., ideological intolerance). According to Whitley and Kite, researchers who were interested in studying the psychological effects of religion on prejudice initially studied the relationship between simple indicators of religiosity such as whether or not a person went to church and the level of prejudice that that person showed. (1979) Experimentation in psychology of religion: Living with or in a dream? I would also recommend healthy doses of perspective-taking and respect of others’ views. A woman helps feed and clothe poor children in the slums of India: How likely is it that her religion motivated her to do so? It first provides a brief overview of seminal research that has formed the backbone of contemporary social psychological study of religion and prejudice. Batson, C.D Naifet, S. and Pate, S.(1978) Social desirability, religious orientation, and racial prejudice. And the bigotries are most of them in their turn chargeable to religion's wicked intellectual partner, the spirit of dogmatic dominion, the passion for laying down the law in the form of an absolutely closed-in theoretic system. Religion, Prejudice, and Authoritarianism: Is RWA a Boon or Bane to the Psychology of Religion? Research on religiosity and prejudice has tried to shed light on the reasons why religious people are less or more prejudiced by examining mediating variables (e.g., Rowatt et al., 2009). Religion and prejudice. That is, when religion is infused into tribal conflicts or wars between nations, the conflicts tend to intensify. Reasoning about purpose and design in nature, The human function compunction: Teleological explanation in adults, Professional physical scientists display tenacious teleological tendencies: Purpose-based reasoning as a cognitive default, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion, Can race be erased? This tradition has a long history, indeed, as William James (1902) noted: The plain fact is that men's minds are built, as has been often said, in water-tight compartments. Traditional psychological perspectives on religion and prejudice are summarized, followed by a discussion of religion and prejudice in cross‐cultural and cross‐religious … Distrust is central to anti-atheist prejudice, The cultural transmission of faith: Why innate intuitions are necessary, but insufficient, to explain religious belief, Sacred bounds on rational resolution of violent political conflict, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Beyond beliefs: Religions bind individuals into moral communities, When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize, Individual differences in sensitivity to disgust: A scale sampling seven domains of disgust elicitors, The evolution of costly displays, cooperation and religion: Credibility enhancing displays and their implications for cultural evolution, The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission, Religious orientation and prejudice: A comparison of racial and sexual attitudes, Some of my best friends”: Intergroup contact, concealable stigma, and heterosexuals’ attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, God is not great: How religion poisons everything, The psychology of religious fundamentalism, Religious fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostility toward homosexuals in non-Christian religious groups, Conservatives are more easily disgusted than liberals, Minimal conditions for real groups: Mere categorization or competitive between category behavior, Representative Research in Social Psychology, Hand of God, mind of man: Punishment and cognition in the evolution of cooperation, The good of wrath: Supernatural punishment and the evolution of cooperation, Facets of right-wing authoritarianism mediate the relationship between religious fundamentalism and attitudes toward Arabs and African Americans. It is clear that these investigations, still in progress, tend to confirm demographic and sociological studies that we have also reviewed. In this view, some “core” element of religion may predict tolerance, while other aspects of religion (or nonreligious constructs that tend to nonetheless correlate with religiosity) might engender outgroup enmity. Pichon, Isabelle In the present paper, we consider values as possible mediators between religiosity and prejudice. Recent work on religion and prejudice suggests that findings in that area cannot be generalized to religious groups’ attitudes toward other forms of difference, and that besides psychological and social factors, researchers must consider theological and philosophical aspects of religious worldviews in order to define, recognize, and understand religious prejudice. Sexism and sexual prejudice are associated with various aspects of religion (e.g. Even though religions preach love of humanity, decades of psychological research have linked religiousness with prejudice. belief, faith, and fundamentalism) across all major world religions (e.g. Here, the analysis of religion as a meaning system illuminates how religion can affect intergroup attitudes. APA recently asked Rowatt the following questions: Rowatt: Like other forms of intolerance and prejudice, religious intolerance and prejudice are likely byproducts of how human brains process perceived threats, subsequent emotional reactions, worldview defense and self-regulation ability. People intuitively judge immorality as representative of atheists, Reminders of secular authority reduce believers’ distrust of atheists, Do you believe in atheists? A 2012 study by Steven Neuberg of over 190 pairs of groups at 97 sites around the world revealed increased conflict between groups was predicted independently and interactively by the degree to which religion was a part of a group’s everyday life. Rowatt: Widely distributed media reports can make infrequent extreme crimes, or weather-related disasters for that matter, seem more common than they actually are. Rowatt: Expressed religious prejudice is fairly low in most cultures, but covert forms of religious prejudice assessed by implicit measures are likely higher. Rowatt: I believe that diversity of religious beliefs and experiences is culturally important. Religion, prejudice, and authoritarianism: Is RWA a boon or bane to the psychology of religion? In this chapter we discuss the ways in which religion might promote or facilitate prejudice, inter-group conflict, and war. Rowatt has published numerous articles, including “Religion and prejudice revisited: In-group favoritism, out-group derogation, or both?” published in 2012 in Psychology of Religion and Spirituality®. What are the psychological reasons behind these intolerant and sometimes violent acts? Coalitional computation and social categorization, Religious fundamentalism as a predictor of prejudice: A two-component model, Testing a dual process model of prejudice: Assessment of group threat perceptions and emotions. Indeed, prominent theories in personality-social psychology have been employed in the analysis of religious behavior, including dissonance theory (Brock, 1962), attribution theory (Bulman & Wortman, 1977), and theories of altruism (Batson, Eidelman, Higley, & Russell, 2001). Allport’s Rowatt: A variety of factors contribute to the growth and development of both religiousness and prejudice within a person — including biological processes, maturation, socialization experiences, group identity and cultural learning styles. He defined ethnic prejudice as "an antipathy based on faulty and inflexible generalization" (1954, p. 9). Drawing on findings from the study of prejudice and prejudice reduction, we identify a number of mechanisms through which religious communities may influence the intergroup attitudes of their members. For example, human minds very quickly categorize individuals into social groups, some of which evoke unjustified fears or disgust reactions. For one thing, most social psychological studies of religion and prejudice have focused on Christians in North America and Europe since the 1960s; and most have examined either racism from Whites towards Blacks (for review see Hall et al., 2010), or attitudes towards groups perceived as challenging traditional Christian values, such as gays and lesbians, feminists, and atheists; or … between religion and prejudice making further research necessary. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. We suggest that the evolved characteristics of religion can contribute in both direct and indirect ways to out-group prejudice, and … Rogers, C. A., & Frantz, C. (1962). We hypothesize that religious participation could in principle either reduce or promote prejudice with respect to any given target group. 4 Prejudice in Psychology and Religion. Prejudice in Specific Domains, The Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of Prejudice, From a religious point of view, if God had thought homosexuality is a sin, he would not have created gay people, If a man has sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. IQ and global inequality. Linking these bodies of research more systemati-cally could lead to significant advances in under-standing. If a man has sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. In school systems, prejudice can be seen because of race, religion, and faith. Of course, when interpreting frequencies like this, it is important to consider the percentages of Jews or Muslims in the larger population. Prejudices, on the other hand, are almost always negative and aren't based on reason or experience. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Wade Rowatt, PhD, is a professor of psychology at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, specializing in psychology of religion. Abstract. Religious prejudices or Religious intolerance is the intolerance of another's religious beliefs or practices. Religion, prejudice, and authoritarianism: Is RWA a boon or bane to the psychology of religion? Part II Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 18(1): 90-93. Thinking, Religion, and Prejudice: An Experimental Test of the Dual-Process Model of Mind, The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 26:4, 360-369, DOI: 10.1080/10508619.2016.1151117 The effect of mortality salience, compassionate values, and religious fundamentalism on hostility toward out-groups, Patterns and personality correlates of implicit and explicit attitudes toward Christians and Muslims, Associations between religious personality dimensions and implicit homosexual prejudice, Operation of the laws of sympathetic magic in disgust and other domains, Believing, bonding, behaving, and belonging: The Big Four religious dimensions and cultural variation, Identities, values, and religion: A study among Muslim, other immigrant, and native Belgian young adults after the 9/11 attacks, Prosocial behavior and religion: New evidence based on projective measures and peer ratings, Foundations of evolutionary psychology: Ideas, issues, and applications, Prehistoric dangers and contemporary prejudices, Disentangling the belief in God and cognitive rigidity/flexibility components of religiosity to predict racial and value-violating prejudice: A Post-Critical Belief Scale analysis, Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression, Stereotypes of Muslims and support for the war on terror, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Unto others: The evolution and psychology of unselfish behavior, Where God and science meet: How brain and evolutionary studies alter our understanding of religion, Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior, Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, Social categorization and intergroup behaviour, Religion and trust: An experimental study, Disgust: A predictor of social conservatism and prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuals, The evolution of war and its cognitive foundations, Institute for Evolutionary Studies Technical Report, Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment, Microbes, mating, and morality: Individual differences in three functional domains of disgust, RESEARCH: Orthodox, humanitarian, and science-inspired belief in relation to prejudice against Jews, Muslims, and ethnic minorities: The content of one's belief does matter, The SAGE handbook of the sociology of religion, Religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A meta-analysis, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Reintroducing group selection to the human behavioral sciences, Sexual Prejudice: Advances in Conceptual and Empirical Models, Social Dominance Theory: Explorations in the Psychology of Oppression, The Dual Process Motivational Model of Ideology and Prejudice, Prejudice Against Immigrants in Multicultural Societies, Constructing an understanding of mind: The development of children's social understanding within social interaction. 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