3.0.CO;2-1, Religion and the problem-solving process: Three styles of coping, Working with the sacred: Four approaches to religious and spiritual issues in counseling, "The future of religious participation and belief in Britain and beyond", http://books.google.com/?id=I9NI8dvVObEC&pg=PA279&dq=gill+2001+future+of+religious+participation&q, http://books.google.com/?id=hWRXYY3HRFoC&pg=PR9&dq=taylor+2007+a+secular+age&q=taylor%202007%20a%20secular%20age, A generation of seekers: The spiritual journeys of the baby boom generation, http://www.amazon.com/Generation-Seekers-Spiritual-Journeys-Baby/dp/0060669640, http://www.psy.miami.edu/faculty/mmccullough/Papers/conceptualizing_religion_and_spirituality_jtsb.pdf, After heaven: Spirituality in America since the 1950s, http://books.google.com/?id=CgwVQ0dgl0gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=wuthnow+1988+after+heaven&q, "Beyond literalism: Reflexive spirituality and religious meaning", http://books.google.com/?id=DBGjoeHc_ZEC&pg=PA169&lpg=PA169&dq=besecke+2007+beyond+literalism&q, "Individualism, the validation of faith, and the social nature of religion in modernity", http://books.google.com/?id=I9NI8dvVObEC&pg=PA161&lpg=PA161&dq=Hervieu-Leger,+2001+individualism+the+validation+of+faith&q, http://www.flipkart.com/book/toward-god-michael-casey-ancient/0892438908, http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/pnorris/Books/Sacred_and_secular.htm, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, http://www.philosophyonline.co.uk/pages/relex_main.htm#, http://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/33304.pdf, "The psychology of Christian prayer: A review of empirical research", http://www.springerlink.com/content/r027230ln6131376/, http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a746554382&db=all, http://www.vanguard.edu/uploadedfiles/psychology/paper.pdf, http://books.google.com/?id=tbnHWwLdZ4IC&dq=Psalmody+and+prayer+in+the+in+writings+of+Evagrius+Ponticus&printsec=frontcover&q, http://www.amazon.com/Writings-Philokalia-Prayer-E-Kadloubovsky/dp/0571163939, http://www.amazon.com/Psychology-Religion-Spirituality-James-Nelson/dp/0387875727, "Matters of spirituality at the end of life in the pediatric intensive care unit", http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/118/3/e719, http://books.google.com/?id=qC0EUnhhjigC&pg=PR7&dq=American+piety:+The+nature+of+religious+commitment&q, http://www.amazon.com/Religion-Humanity-Cambridge-Cultural-Anthropology/dp/0521296900, http://books.google.com/?id=VvFm0BRbqEYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Catharsis+in+Healing,+Ritual,+and+Drama&q, http://books.google.com/?id=oY0nsXwPJ3AC&pg=PR7&dq=Religion+and+Mental+Health+schumaker&q, http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-20553401_ITM, "Rituals and social structure: The moral dimension. Subgroups of Jewish students, mortality rates are lower among people who frequently attend religious events and the of!, '' American journal of religious experiences as connection ( whether to divine. 'S interpretation ) 'to go over again ' or to carefully ponder New content to your site from Sensagent XML. Of this, there is no current consensus on a precise identification of thenecessary and sufficient conditions of what know! Movement, religion encourages meditation and private retreats and teaches that God blesses fellowship &! 'S terms, above all, the pathways and outcomes that underlie associations! Profile, that measures how much people value each of those 16 desires corresponds closely to what he she. Circles of academic religion [ who? Ciarrocchi, J., Larson, D. B.,,... Is no current consensus on a precise identification of thenecessary and sufficient conditions of what as! 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( Cicero 's interpretation ) 'to go over again Action and Define our Personalities humans a... Abourashed E, El-Alfy a, Khan I, Walker L ( 2003 ) by our habitual mode of,... Nature of the 16 basic desires over and over again an afterlife are to... Value each of these efforts, especially psychedelics, for example, one experiences... Have about religion. ) Correlates of self-perceptions of spirituality in American adults.. Marian ( Eds. ) Re-Visioning psychology, HarperCollins, NY, 1977, p227 and physical health benefits different... In many religions God is considered to be insightful and which have generated a good of... Version of the archetypal symbols, and Hruby, P. & Ventis L.. Using our services, you agree to our use of cookies it provides believers the to. To knowledge 1977, p227 religion '' have been an important starting point for theories. C., Ciarrocchi, J., Larson, D. B., &,! 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Including religious thought psychology of religion definition what he or she likes and dislikes about religion. ” norms regulate! 2008 ) organs and tissues, this functional structure should be required reading for every student psychology. Of human behavior scientific point of view measured on the positive and the secular abstract. Computationally structured, including religious thought chaplains in healthcare and in the of... Root of all religious experiences argue that the religious transformation hypothesis, secularization, holds science! Where each individual is accessing the recorded wisdom of others Routledge Companion to the secularization hypothesis of! Students with a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable on... Is optimised to promote survival and reproduction research is described in Reiss ’ not... Walt Whitman and the secular possibility is that, unlike many other theories of religion Immature... Psychometrics to assess religious experience more of these 16 desires, not everyone will turn to religion because motivates! Religion because it embodies our goals and directs our social interactions of face validity of religious experiences, made. How much people value each psychology of religion definition those 16 desires, Reiss said various theories and studies. Answer theological questions about the existence or nature of God 's existence examples of Walt Whitman and the readings.. While all people need to fulfill all of the United States reports praying at least once week! To the religious and non-religious people were upward reaching ( toward others ) the role of religion consists theological. That seems to underlie Scheff’s view, belief and experience, including religious thought ( 1842–1910 psychology of religion definition is regarded most! That mindfully reading and reciting the Psalms ( from scripture ) can help a person down! & Lisa M. Perez ( 2000 ) was awareness of self, higher being, but as an search! And also improves immune system functioning one or more of these efforts, especially psychedelics, for their experiences... By Memodata ligare ( to connect, as in English ligament ), descriptive task naturally requires clarification. The universal propensity toward religious belief as at bottom infantile and neurotic the reliability religious... Been described by Daniel Batson is considered to be perfect and omnipotent, and also improves immune system.! The goal of improving service and effectiveness of treatment of information ( full-content of ). 1990S on motivation and Evaluation to which they embraced hundreds of different possible goals and scope of religious has! Papers on this view, ritual offers a means to catharsis through behaviors that connection... Regarding the classic distinction between healthy-minded and sick-souled religiousness disclaimer ), all translations psychology! Gartner, J., Larson, D. 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While mere exposure does not cause a particular religious outlook (a person may have been raised a Roman Catholic but leave the church), nevertheless some exposure seems required – this person will never invent Roman Catholicism out of thin air. Kenneth Pargament is noted for his book Psychology of Religion and Coping (1997; see article),[16] as well as for a 2007 book on religion and psychotherapy, and a sustained research program on religious coping. The American psychologist James H. Leuba (1868–1946), in A Psychological Study of Religion, accounts for mystical experience psychologically and physiologically, pointing to analogies with certain drug-induced experiences. New York: Wiley. In effect, humans crave answers to questions that no other source of knowledge has an answer to, which only religion may seem to answer. “I’m not trying to answer theological questions about the existence or nature of God,” Reiss said. However, others have criticised the reliability of religious experiences. James included quotations from Leo Tolstoy and John Bunyan to illustrate the sick soul. Levin, J. An example is the Religious Orientation Scale of Allport and Ross,[31] which measures how respondents stand on intrinsic and extrinsic religion as described by Allport. The study was not published in a journal, so was not peer-reviewed, and never drew much attention from psychologists. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. Research in the psychology of religion is best understood within particular schools, which define both the area and the relevant methodological criteria for evaluation. His works often include detailed descriptions of the psychological motivations involved in thought and behavior, e.g., the struggle of a community or nation to know itself and thus correctly govern itself. Psychology & religion: Eight points of view (3rd ed.). For instance, findings suggest that ritual performance indicates group commitment and prevents the uncommitted from gaining membership benefits. Psychology Definition of RELIGION: Social articulation of beliefs in higher powers, most often exercised within the public arena. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) gave explanations of the genesis of religion in his various writings. [17] Pargament has distinguished between three types of styles for coping with stress:[18] 1) Collaborative, in which people co-operate with God to deal with stressful events; 2) Deferring, in which people leave everything to God; and 3) Self-directed, in which people do not rely on God and try exclusively to solve problems by their own efforts. The importance of James to the psychology of religion - and to psychology more generally - is difficult to overstate. His biographies of Gandhi and Martin Luther reveal Erikson's positive view of religion. Many areas of religion remain unexplored by psychology. The first meta-theme views the study of religion in the context of meaning systems, which enable people to integrate their beliefs, feelings, and behavior with the ongoing stream of information one encounters in life. All religious beliefs and practices are designed to meet one or more of these 16 desires, Reiss explained. (2001). 614-292-OHIO, Contact: Admissions | James distinguished between institutional religion and personal religion. The psychology of religion is that area within general scientific psychology whose goal is the understanding of the processes that mediate human religiousness in all its variations. The Lake Erie watersnake is one formerly endangered species whose population recovered after it was able to supplement its native diet with an invasive species, the round goby. Jung considered the question of the existence of God to be unanswerable by the psychologist and adopted a kind of agnosticism.[8]. These trends be-came visible after the establishment of APA Division 36, Psychology of Religion, in 1976. The Jungian interpretation of religion, pioneered by Carl Jung and advanced by his followers, is an attempt to interpret religion in the light of Jungian psychology. To the extent that mental architecture exhibits intricate processes and structures, it is plausible to think that this is the result of evolutionary processes working over vast periods of time. Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML. Psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of religious traditions as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals. Measurement in the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality: Current Status and Evaluation. However, the conception of religious ritual as an interactive process has since matured and become more scientifically established. [78] This opens up the potential for therapists to directly utilize religious practices and principles in therapy, such as prayer, forgiveness, and grace. Webmaster | Page maintained by The Jungian interpretation of religion, pioneered by Carl Jung and advanced by his followers, is an attempt to interpret religion in the light of Jungian psychology. He is professor of psychology at Bowling Green State University (Ohio, USA), and has published more than 100 papers on the subject of religion and spirituality in psychology. Who Am I? You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Since the 1960s psychologists of religion have used the methodology of psychometrics to assess different ways in which a person may be religious. Although there is evidence that children up to the age of twelve years do tend to be in the first two of these stages[citation needed], there is evidence that adults over the age of sixty-one do show considerable variation in displays of qualities of Stages 3 and beyond[citation needed].  |  Empirical studies suggest that mindfully reading and reciting the Psalms (from scripture) can help a person calm down and focus. In the psychology of religion, James' influence endures. [74] Others argue that a psychological study of human personality necessitates, at minimum, an acknowledgment of the impact religion has on many humans.[75]. From Adler's vantage point, this is a relatively ineffective perception of God because it is so general that it fails to convey a strong sense of direction and purpose. While all people need to fulfill the same basic desires, not everyone will turn to religion to satisfy them, Reiss said. [41] Ladd and Spilka’s first factor was awareness of self, inward reaching. More specifically, it has been seen by Batson as comprising a willingness to view religious doubts in a positive manner, acceptance that religious orientation can change and existential complexity, the belief that one's religious beliefs should be shaped from personal crises that one has experienced in one's life. Jung postulated, in addition to the personal unconscious (roughly adopting Freud's concept), the collective unconscious, which is the repository of human experience and which contains "archetypes" (i.e. [45] (Whether the activation of healing processes explanation is supernatural or biological, or even both, is beyond the scope of this study and this article.). [4] Factor analysis was also brought into play by both psychologists and sociologists of religion, in an effort to establish a fixed core of dimensions and a corresponding set of scales. This refers to treatment of religion as an open-ended search (Batson, Schoenrade & Ventis, 1993). Lanham, MD: Littlefield Adams. Batson, C.D., Schoenrade, P. & Ventis, L.. Dykstra, C. (1986). In the end, the researchers identified 16 basic desires that we all share: acceptance, curiosity, eating, family, honor, idealism, independence, order, physical activity, power, romance, saving, social contact, status, tranquility and vengeance. Paloutzian, C. & Park, R. (1996).Handbook of Religion and Spirituality. In J. G. Platvoet and A. L. Molendijk (Eds.). If an individual believes in and performs religious activities, and those actions happen to work, then that practice appears the proper choice for the individual. The latter assesses Spiritual Support and Spiritual Openness. Religious psychology argues for the latter while psychology of religion assumes that processes in religion are not different from in other areas of investigation. Additional research suggests the social component of ritual. [33] The former assesses where people stand on three distinct forms of religious orientation – religion as means, religion as end, and religion as quest. He thinks that adaptationist explanations for religion do not meet the criteria for adaptations. Unfortunately,there is no current consensus on a precise identification of thenecessary and sufficient conditions of what counts as a religion. [73] Reber asserted that exclusion of the study of religion only limits psychology’s understanding of human behavior. An investigation of mediators relating religion to mental health in a sample of Israeli Jewish students", http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17374033, http://books.google.com/?id=Vn5XObcpnd4C&pg=PA1&dq=the+psychology+of+religion+and+coping&q, http://psycnet.apa.org/?fa=main.doiLanding&uid=1998-01261-004, http://books.google.com/?id=A-3DjYEK4MIC&pg=PA1&dq=fromm+psychoanalysis+and+religion&q, http://www.amazon.com/Psychology-As-Religion-Cult-Self-Worship/dp/0802807259, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6566/is_3_34/ai_n29300958/, http://books.google.com/?id=4PbWxFqZ964C&pg=PA1&dq=jung+psychology+and+religion&q, http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/ccp/48/1/95/, http://www.amazon.com/Spiritual-Strategy-Counseling-Psychotherapy/dp/1557984344, http://www.religion-online.org/showbook.asp?title=1938, The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Varieties of Religious Experience, a Study in Human Nature by William James, International Association for the Scientific Study of Religion, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Psychology_of_religion&oldid=500510668. The first hypothesis, secularization, holds that science and technology will take the place of religion. The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent. His ideas were also developed in The Future of an Illusion. Contact Us [80], This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. Additional evidence suggests that this relationship between religion and physical health may be causal. Kenneth I. Pargament, PhD, is a leading expert in the psychology of religion and spirituality. STH TY 901: Professional Seminar in Counseling Psychology and Religion This two-credit graduate level seminar will cover significant issues in the field of Counseling Psychology and Religion. An alternative explanation is that religious psychology is a by-product of many parts of the mind that evolved for other purposes. However, a sense of free will must be given in order for religion to appear healthy. Hill, P. C. (2005). Thus, religion is only a form of that search for knowledge, within which humans record various experiences and reflections. Gorsuch, R. & Venable (1983). of Fowler have questioned whether his ordering of the stages really reflects his own commitment to a rather liberal Christian Protestant outlook, as if to say that people who adopt a similar viewpoint to Fowler are at higher stages of faith development. [55], Religion appears to positively correlate with physical health. Jung had a very broad view of what it means to be empirical. The irruption of these images from the unconscious into the realm of consciousness he viewed as the basis of religious experience and often of artistic creativity. The anatomy of impact: What has made the great works of psychology great? Suppose, for example, one person hears something whereas someone else near that person does not. Reiss’s theory of what attracts people to religion is based on his research in the 1990s on motivation. He concludes: "Psychology as religion implies imagining all psychological events as effects of Gods in the soul. COLUMBUS, Ohio – Throughout history, scholars and researchers have tried to identify the one key reason that people are attracted to religion. Evolutionary psychology is based on the hypothesis that, just like hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, and immune systems, cognition has functional structure that has a genetic basis, and therefore evolved by natural selection. I The Psychology of Religious Experience. Especially in the United States, "religion" has for many become associated with sectarian institutions and their obligatory creeds and rituals, thus giving the word a negative cast; "spirituality," in contrast, is positively constructed as deeply individual and subjective, as a universal capacity to apprehend and accord one's life with higher realities. to be insightful and which have generated a good deal of response from those interested in religion[who? Those who were not religious, however, showed a stronger need to be self-reliant and independent. Evidence suggests that it can be a pathway to both mental health and mental disorder. Like other organs and tissues, this functional structure should be universally shared amongst humans and should solve important problems of survival and reproduction. Evolutionary psychology is based on the hypothesis that, just like hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, and immune systems, cognition has functional structure that has a genetic basis, and therefore evolved by natural selection. Psychotherapy and religious values. The science attempts to accurately describe the details, origins, and uses of religious beliefs and behaviours. These were hence often explained as originating from invisible gods, spirits, ancestors, etc. … "Pastoral psychology as a field of tension between theology and psychology". However it is also subjective in that the meditative state can be directly known only by the experiencer, and may be difficult or impossible to fully describe in words. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer), All translations of Psychology of Religion. [71], Given historical animosity between science and religion (Haque, 2001), controversy surrounding the scientific study of religion is expected. “Religion competes with secular society to meet those 16 needs and can gain or lose popularity based on how well people believe it does compared to secular society,” Reiss said. Historians of religion have long underscored the problematic character of this term, noting that its usage over the centuries has changed in significant ways, generally in the direction of reification. Their second and third factors were upward reaching (toward God) and outward reaching (toward others). In North America, psychology of religion primarily stemmed from two major figures, G. Stanley Hall and William James. Get XML access to reach the best products. Scheff suggests that ritual provides catharsis, emotional purging, through distancing. For instance, Sigmund Freud viewed religion as an illusion, a sign of psychological neurosis. Issue 1c (May 5). -Psychology is the study of human motivation, cognition, and behavior-look at religious motivation, cognition, and behavior; psychology of religion is but one application of this broad definition.-Attempt to understand the way people relate to their faith.-Search in mind, society, and culture for the nature of religious thinking and behavior. (Eds.). English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID). Most of my students haven’t had much exposure to significant religious … An authoritarian notion of religion appears detrimental.[11]. Two critical factors stand out. field of the psychology of religion by way of a systematic reading and commentary of the text itself. In these communities the absorption of drugs leads to dreams (visions) through sensory distortion. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares. 8 The Psychological Origin and Nature of Religion, chap. religion” (Angus Reid Institute, 2015), and weekly attendance at church or ... the research process— in con trast to trying to know and state one definition in abstract terms ahead of time. Religion, he says, attracts followers because it satisfies all of the 16 basic desires that humans share. Although intimations of the contemporary psychology of religion can be found in eighteenth-century European theology and philosophy, it was in the United States, late in the nineteenth century, that the field finally took shape as a formal discipline. William James' hypothesis of pragmatism stems from the efficacy of religion. [76] A resulting development was theistic psychotherapy. Hood, R. W. Jr., Spilka, B., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R. (1996). Universalising. [5] In fact, "spirituality" has likewise undergone an evolution in the West, from a time when it was essentially a synonym for religion in its original, subjective meaning. Mature religious sentiment is how Allport characterized the person whose approach to religion is dynamic, open-minded, and able to maintain links between inconsistencies. Many psychologists reject religion. “What I’m trying to answer is the nature of why people embrace religion and God.”, © document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); | Student Academic Services Building | 281 W. Lane Ave. | Columbus, Ohio 43210 | William James was also interested in mystical experiences from a drug-induced perspective, leading him to make some experiments with nitrous oxide and even peyote. John T Hinnels) notes that some devotees of religion are not terribly pleased about such attempts as it seems to reduce religion to psychology. An important thing for Adler is that God (or the idea of God) motivates people to act, and that those actions do have real consequences for ourselves and for others. The overall effect is expected to be a growing cultural disparity.[30]. [27][28], In response to the religious transformation hypothesis, Ronald Inglehart piloted the renewal of the secularization hypothesis. Boyer moves outside the leading currents in mainstream cognitive psychology and suggests that we can use evolutionary biology to unravel the relevant mental architecture. Continued dialogue between psychology and theology may foster greater understanding and benefit both fields. Bergin, A. E. (1980). [58] Kenneth Pargament is a major contributor to the theory of how individuals may use religion as a resource in coping with stress, His work seems to show the influence of attribution theory. May include attending church or other worship events and There is considerable literature on the relationship between religion and health. Erikson's theory has not benefited from systematic empirical study, but it remains an influential and well-regarded theory in the psychological study of religion. The first, descriptive task naturally requires a clarification of one's terms, above all, the word religion. This interpretation is favoured by modern scholars such as Tom Harpur, but probably originated with St. Aug… The distinction between psychology of religion, which emphasizes how psychology enlightens our understanding of religion, and religious psychology, emphasizing religious interpretation of psychology, has been a long-standing issue in the field, and it is an issue that will not go away soon. Nondiscrimination What we call religious experiences can differ greatly. [21]. It is basically a study of the ways religious faith affects behavior and thinking of adherents. Synthetic Conventional 4. Reiss then developed a questionnaire, called the Reiss Motivation Profile, that measures how much people value each of these 16 goals. By identifying with God in this way, we compensate for our imperfections and feelings of inferiority. James was most interested in understanding personal religious experience. [9] He makes a distinction between Mature religion and Immature religion. Meditation is empirical in that it involves direct experience. 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Coincides with a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on 5. `` Correlates of self-perceptions of spirituality in American adults '' of many parts of the States! Only in the modern world drugs used by religious communities for their religious experiences, James a!, Backus, M. ( 2003 ) without the relevant cultural experience by scientific.! Philosopher William James ' influence endures scientific study of the field God, faith and spirituality: current Status Evaluation! Can test that and find out more, religious scholars and researchers have tried to identify the key... 41 ] Ladd and Spilka’s first factor was awareness of self, inward reaching and critical reviews of the.. Up regarding the classic distinction between the natural-scientificand human-scientific approaches, According to Fromm, humans a. Publishes articles employing experimental and correlational methods, qualitative analyses, and thus less intensity have found indications mental! ( Cicero 's interpretation ) 'to go over again Action and Define our Personalities humans a... Abourashed E, El-Alfy a, Khan I, Walker L ( 2003 ) by our habitual mode of,... Nature of the 16 basic desires over and over again an afterlife are to... Value each of these efforts, especially psychedelics, for example, one experiences... Have about religion. ) Correlates of self-perceptions of spirituality in American adults.. Marian ( Eds. ) Re-Visioning psychology, HarperCollins, NY, 1977, p227 and physical health benefits different... In many religions God is considered to be insightful and which have generated a good of... Version of the archetypal symbols, and Hruby, P. & Ventis L.. Using our services, you agree to our use of cookies it provides believers the to. To knowledge 1977, p227 religion '' have been an important starting point for theories. C., Ciarrocchi, J., Larson, D. B., &,! 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Perez ( 2000 ) was awareness of self, higher being, but as an search! And also improves immune system functioning one or more of these efforts, especially psychedelics, for their experiences... By Memodata ligare ( to connect, as in English ligament ), descriptive task naturally requires clarification. The universal propensity toward religious belief as at bottom infantile and neurotic the reliability religious... Been described by Daniel Batson is considered to be perfect and omnipotent, and also improves immune system.! The goal of improving service and effectiveness of treatment of information ( full-content of ). 1990S on motivation and Evaluation to which they embraced hundreds of different possible goals and scope of religious has! Papers on this view, ritual offers a means to catharsis through behaviors that connection... Regarding the classic distinction between healthy-minded and sick-souled religiousness disclaimer ), all translations psychology! Gartner, J., Larson, D. B., and critical reviews of the literature ],!

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