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Slide 1 of 84 TOPIC CHAPTER 1: Introduction To Computers A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. Introduction to Computers Hardware and Software : Hardware. A comprehensive database of more than 10 introduction to computer quizzes online, test your knowledge with introduction to computer quiz questions. In any level of our academics, we will be required to know a thing or two about computers. The server receives and processes the SQL and PL/SQL statements that originate from client applications. Each computer language was created for some reason as computers evolved, and those that survive today have particular strengths that make them useful to programmers. Linux was first released in the early 1990's as open-source software, which means it was created by many volunteer programmers and is free to use. Most people can simply turn on a computer or a mobile phone and point at some little graphical object on the display, click a button or swipe a finger or two, and the computer does something. Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing unit. 2.3. A broad and robust understanding of computer science and programming How to think algorithmically and solve programming problems efficiently Concepts like abstraction, algorithms, data structures, encapsulation, resource management, security, software engineering, and web development Software Development Methods - Something we've touched on before, but understand the steps and the different methodologies. Highly popular operating system that features a graphical operating system and a large number of hardware and software vendors creating compatible peripherals and software applications. General principles are developed in the context of state machines, with tangible applications in controlling the behaviors of a mobile robot. Software Development (10% of the Introduction to Computing DSST) Intro to Programming - Just in case you ignored my earlier advice to read the entire lesson. This course is an introduction to Logic from a computational perspective. MIT OpenCourseWare is a free & open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum.. No enrollment or registration. Introduction to Computers Hardware and Software : Hardware. All of the physical components that come together to form a computer. It was created by Andrew Sutherland in October 2005 and released to the public in January 2007. There are many different forms of this application such as Norton and Windows Security Essentials. Introduction to Computer Science using Java by Bradley Kjell is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. The server runs Oracle software and handles the functions required for concurrent, shared data access. Linux can also be run on small embedded systems that do not have a large monitor, so it's common to control a Linux system through a command-line interface. Languages include C, Python, SQL, and JavaScript plus CSS and HTML. But, since you are goi… Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer. Introduction to Computer Hardware Chapter Exam Instructions. An introduction to the intellectual enterprises of computer science and the art of programming. After a brief introduction to programming concepts, this unit focuses on the importance of abstraction and modularity for managing complexity. Return to CCSU Computer Science Department home page. Welcome! An example would be to get weather information from the net and display it. QA76.6.G575 2003 005.1 dc22 2003020686 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data The underlying software that makes it possible to run other programs on the computer. / Francis Glassborow. Introduction . A 1958 article in Harvard Business Review referred to information technology as consisting of three basic parts: computational data processing, decision support, and business software. Introduction to Microsoft Word 2016 Screen Elements Title Bar Z File Menu: The File tab will bring you into the Backstage View. Released in 1984. It is an IDE. Return to the list of courses. CHAPTER 1 — Introduction to Computer Systems A computer is a complex system consisting of both hardware and software components. The OS is, for the most part, the GUI (graphical user interface) that shows you all of your applications, and without the OS you cannot use the computer. I. Introduction To Computers: Hardware and Software In this section of notes you will learn about the basic parts of a computer and how they work. 2.3. Take it up and see how much you remember from the introduction to computers. CHAPTER 1 — Introduction to Computer Systems A computer is a complex system consisting of both hardware and software components. General principles are developed in the context of state machines, with tangible applications in controlling the behaviors of a mobile robot. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A Firewall is a type of security system that creates a wall that checks all incoming and outgoing messages to ensure only authorized traffic goes through. This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. This time period marked the beginning of IT as an officially defined … Over the ensuing decades, many corporations created so-called "IT departments" to manage the computer technologies related to their business. Introduction to Computer Security draws upon Bishop's widely praised Computer Security: Art and Science, without the highly complex and mathematical coverage that most undergraduate students would find difficult or unnecessary.The result: the field's most concise, accessible, and useful introduction. Computer software is used to communicate with the computer processor to direct certain operations to be performed. Another way to protect your information is through encryption. Software Development (10% of the Introduction to Computing DSST) Intro to Programming - Just in case you ignored my earlier advice to read the entire lesson. The applications you use are the software you work with on a computer. Small pieces of software that work at a low level within the operating system. This is also sometime called the machinery or the equipment of the computer. This is done through computer programming languages. Chemistry Education Instructional Resources web site https://chemdemos.uoregon.edu. Quizlet is an American online study application that allows students to study various topics via learning tools and games. The OS boots up the computer and makes sure everything is operational. James Tam How to interact with a computer program is all the average person needs to know. The latest game that Mike worked on, uses inferential reasoning and allows players to choose different characters, primarily macho man and sexy woman. Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing unit. Quizlet trains students via flashcards and various games and tests. Return to the list of courses. being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations, and know how to use them, a field of study focused on managing and processing information and the automatic retrieval of information, the process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a pattern, a type of wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances; this standard facilitates the connection of electronic computing devices such as cell phones, smartphones, and computers to peripheral devices such as keyboards and headsets, the process of sending jobs formerly performed in the US to other countries, a law enforcement specialty that analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence, an apppropriate computer and digital devices that are all connected to a home network, the instructions that tell the computer what to do, radio frequency identification tags (RDIF tags), a tag that looks like a sticker or label, is attached to a batch of merchandise, and contains a microchip that holds a unique sequence of numbers to identify the product to which it is attached, life-sized, computer-controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe, and blink; they have a pulse and a heartbeat, and they respond just like humans to procedures such as the administration of IV drugs, the status of software that are not protected by copyright, the study of molecules and nanostructures that range in size from 1 to 100 nanometers, the science of using nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale, computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotion, the discrepancy between the haves and have-nots with regard to computer technology, a data processing device that gathers, processes, outputs, and stores data and information, a representation of a fact, figure, or an idea, data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion, the language computers use to process data into information, consisting of only the values 0 and 1, a binary digit that corresponds to the on and of states of a computer's switches, consisting of only the values 0 and 1, any part of the computer you can physically touch, the set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks such as writing a research paper, the set of programs that enables your computer's hardware devices and applocation software to work together, the program that controls the way in which your computer system functions, a portable computer that is powered by batteries or an electrical outlet and has a keyboard, monitor, and other devices integrated into a single compact case, a small, lightweight notebook computer that is generally 7-10" wide and has a longer battery life than a notebook computer, similar to a notebook but features a touch-sensitive screen that can swivel and fold flat; users input data and commands via a special pen called a stylus or with their fingers, a stationary computer that consists of a separate care that houses the main components of the computer plus peripheral devices, a component, such as a monitor or keyboard, that is connected to the computer, a computer that houses not just the computer's processor and memory but also its monitor, a large, expensive computer that supports hundreds of users simultaneously, a specially designed computer that can perform complex calculations extremely rapidly, a specially designed computer chip that resides in another device, such as your car or your thermostat, a device that enables you to ender data and instructions into the computer, an input device ised to enter data and commands, an input device ised to enter user responses and commands, an input device that is used like amoise or pen to tap commands or draw on a screen, a keyboard that gets its name from the first six letters on the top-left row of alphabetic keys on the keyboard; the standard English-language keyboard layout, a set of controls that move your cursor or arrow one space at a time in a document: up, down, left, or right, a mouse that uses an internal sensor or laser to detect the mouse's movement, a mouse that has a rollerball on top or on the side of the mouse, and you move the ball with your fingers, allowing the mouse to stay stationary, a small, touch-sensitive area at the base of the keyboard that functions as the mouse, a display screen that responds to commands initiated by a touch with a finger or stylus, a device that allows you to capture sound waves and transfer them to digital format on your computer, a type of microphone that have an attached base that allows them to sit on flat surfaces and are convenient for recording podcasts or in other situations where you might need your hands to be free, a type of microphone that only picks up sound from one direction; best used for recording podcasts with a single voice or making phone calls over the Internet with a single voice, a type of microphone that picks up sounds from all directions at once; best used for recording more than one voice such as a conference call, a type of microphone that is useful in environments such as presentations, where you need to keep your hands free or move around the room, a type of microphone usually attached to a headset that facilitates the use of speech-recognition software, videoconferencing, or making telephone calls, a device that enables you to send processed data out of your computer in the form of text, graphics, audio, or video, an output device sometines referred to as a display screen, which displays text, graphics, and videos as soft copies (copies you can see only on screen), an output device that creates hard copies of text and graphics, the technology used in flat-panel computer monitors, a type of monitor that is lighter and more energy-efficient than a CRT (cathode ray tube) monitor; often used with portable computers such as notebooks, computer devices or peripherals that use techniques, parts, and methods from an earlier time that are no longer popular, a single point or dot, illuminated by an electron beam, that combine to create the images on a computer monitor, the width-to-height ratio proportion of a monitor, traditionally 4:3, a measure of the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the darkest black that the monitor can produce, a value measured in degrees that tells how far you can move to the side of the monitor before the image quality degrades to unacceptable levels, a measure of the greatest amount of hight showing when the monitor is displaying pure white; measured as candelas per square meter (cd/m2) also known as nits, the measurement of time (in milliseconds) it takes for a pixel to change color, a type of printer that sprays ink or uses laser beams to transfer marks onto the paper, a type of printer that uses tiny hammer-like keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, making marks on the paper, a type of nonimpact printer that works by spraying tiny drops of ink onto paper, a type of nonimpact printer that uses laser beans and static electricity to deliver toner onto the correct areas of the page, a device that combines the functions of a printer, scanner, copier, and fax into one machine, a type of printer that produces oversized pictures that require the drawing of precise and continuous lines, such as maps, detailed images, and architectural plans, a type of printer that works either by melting wax-based ink onto paper (a process called thermal wax transfer printing) or by burning dots onto specially coated paper (a process called direct thermal printing)q, a value determined by how many pages per minute the printer can produce; measured in ppm, a value that measures the printed image clarity and is measured in dots per inch (dpi), a system of speakers and audio processing that envelops the listener in a 360-degree field of sound, the main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer, including the computer's processor, memory, and many circuit boards that help the computer function; located in the system unit, the metal or plastic case that also houses the power source and all the storage devices, such as the CD/DVD drive and hard drive, circuit boards, also called adapter cards, that provide additional functionality and can be inserted in slots in the motherboard, an expansion card that provides a connection for the speakers and microphone, an expansion card that provides a connection for the monitor, an expansion card that provides the computer with a connection to the Internet via a phone line and a network interface card (NIC), an expansion card that enables your computer to connect with other computers or to a high-speed cable modem to facilitate an Internet connection, the computer's temporary storage space or short-term memory; it is located in a set of chips on the system unit's motherboard, and its capacity is measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB), temporary storage; when the power is turned off, the data in volatile storage is cleared out, a set of memory chips, located on the motherboard, which stores data and instructions that cannot be changed or erased; it holds all of the information the computer needs to start up, the part of the system unit of a computer, the "brains" that is responsible for data processing; it is the largest and most important chip in the computer and controls all the functions performed by the computer's other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instruction, unit of speed used to measure processor speed, meaning machine cycles per second (a machine cycle is the process of the CPU getting the data or instructions from RAM and decoding the instructions into something the computer can understand), unit of speed measuring older machines, meaning millions of machine cycles per minute, unit of speed measuring current systems, meaning billions of machine cycles per minute, a special shelf inside a computer that is designed to hold storage devices, drive bays that cannot be seen and reserved for internal hard drives; they hold all permanently stored programs and data, can be seen and accessed from outside the system unit; house CD/DVD drives, the computer's primary device for permanent storage of software and documents, permanent storage that holds all the data and instructions your computer needs even after it is turned off, a hard drive that is enclosed in a protective case to make it portable; the drive is connected to the computer with a data transfer cable and is often used to back up data, a drive that can read from and maybe write to CDs, DVDs, or Blue-ray discs, referred to as a jump drive, USB drive, or thumb drive, is a way of storing portable data; they plug into universal serial bus (USB) ports, a form of portable storage; a removable memory card often used in digital cameras. 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