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Sustainability as part of coastal development is achieved at the intersection of the ecological, economic, and social spheres represented by the three components of sustainable development. Nature, 516(7529): 31–33, Hayashi T, Miyakoshi A. Coastal development linked to human settlements, industry, aquaculture, and infrastructure can cause severe impacts on near shore ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly. Scientific Reports, 4: 5995, Hoeksema R J. Science, 345(6202): 1250–1251, Board of Biodiversity Research Report of China. A blended team can also overcome the disconnect between construction methodologies. The last half century has seen significant, and in many cases abrupt and irreversible, changes across the world’s coast lines. Three stages in the history of land reclamation in the Netherlands. 2010. A preliminary study on evaluation of coastal sea water environmental capacity. Basis for action. Ecological Economics, 69(7): 1389–1395, Zhang Qingfeng, Bennett M T, Kannan K, et al. 2013. Coastal Properties at Big Risk - Letter / The Augusta Chronicle by David Kyler, Center for a Sustainable Coast - July 6, 2018 Hidden costs of dirty energy are high LTE Savannah Now, May 2018 Holding Big Oil accountable for deceptive tactics - OPINION / The Times-Union by David Kyler, Center for a Sustainable Coast - April 6, 2018 The trend for timber-led schemes in the Middle East is a current case in point. Globally, the number of people living on the coast is increasing. Evaluating flood resilience strategies for coastal megacities. 1994. A. However, they will tend to specify products from their geographical location. Foundation item: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41601105, 41271102 and 40830746. Geomorphology, 107(1–2): 72–78, Giosan L, Syvitski J, Constantinescu S, et al. 2004. Washington, DC: Island Press, 245, Murray N J, Phinn S R, Clemens R S, et al. Acta Ecologica Sinica (in Chinese), 30(1): 5914–5924, Wang Jing, Xu Min, Zhang Yiming, et al. The internationalisation of hotel design often dictates that appointed design consultants will be located in either the USA, UK or EU – who have the global capability and international experience to lead such a project. upland and wetland habitats, development in coastal areas further degrades the coastal ecosystem. Zhu, G., Xu, X., Wang, H. et al. Nature, 387(6630): 253–260, de Groot R S, Wilson M A, Boumans R M J. Hopeton Austin Features such as underground caves, poor soil bearing capacity or Sabkha (coastal mud- or sand-flats) desert conditions each bring their own challenges. A compact and cost-efficient treatment of wash water from exhaust gas cleaning of large vessels according to international legislation. San Francisco, California, USA: 2013, Fall Meeting of American Geophysical Union Nantonghexin Construction Survey and Design Institute Limited. Ocean & Coastal Management, 102: 393–397, Li Guanguo, Fan Zhengang. A global strategy for protecting vulnerable coastal populations. Sustainable development goal (SDG) 14 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (henceforth the 2030 Agenda) aims for conservation and sustainable use of the oceans, seas, and marine resources, explicitly considering coastal areas in two of its targets (14.2 and 14.5). These Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) included SDG 14, to "conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development." Therefore, collaboration from the earliest stage of the project’s development will allow for these differences to be identified and solutions found – hence securing a smooth delivery process. Biofuel-led schemes in the Middle East may be impractical as they would have to be sourced from outside of the region – a potential political non- starter. From Headwaters to the Ocean: Hydrological Changes and Watershed Management. Clients and investors looking at remote locations in the Middle East need to consider a number of factors and trends. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the Sustainable Development Goals have set the agenda for reducing disaster risks through sustainable and equitable economic, social, and environmental development. Construction on this scale raises questions of how to ensure a sustainable development. The Korean tidal flat systems: Toward transformation from land reclamation to wetland protection. Remotely Sensed Evidence of the Rapid Loss of Tidal Flats in the Yellow Sea. 1999. It has been stated that there has been over a 35% increase in the population of people living on the coasts since 1995. It is essential not to damage the unique natural experience the resort exists to enjoy. 2014. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin (in Chinese), 20(10): 1248–1254, Xie Gaodi, Zhen Lin, Lu Chunxia, et al. The results indicate that the ecological cost of the new land reclamation is US$971.9 million from 2000 to 2010 and that the cost will be US$702.1 million from 2010 to 2020. 2002. A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Retention effect of wetland for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients in the coastal zone of the Yancheng. Marine Ecology (in Chinese). Science, 346(6212): 912–914, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Suggestions for land reclamation oriented to sustainable development in the study area are put forward, including a rational planning based on the comprehensive evaluation, reducing the amount of land reclamation area, optimizing the structure of the reclaimed land, reclaiming land with the concept of “low impact development” and implementing ecological compensation mechanisms, etc. 2006. Expert knowledge based valuation method of ecosystem services in China. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology (in Chinese), 3): 34–38, Zheng Wei, Shi Honghua, Xu Zongjun, et al. Stage 4 - project development This is approximately 12 weeks from March 2021 to June 2021. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, Zhang Hui, Sun Yinglan. 2009. 2009. Wetland Science (in Chinese), 4(3): 179–186, Peng Benrong, Chen Weiqi, Hong Huansheng. 2010b. 2006. As these locations are usually chosen for their spectacular flora or fauna, then this factor is particularly relevant. 2014. PubMed Google Scholar. The average density of people in coastal regions is 3 times higher than the global average density. Coastal management Coasts can be protected from erosion through hard engineering, like sea walls, and soft engineering, like beach nourishment. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 430, Chen Yinfa. The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) - Education 2030 Steering Committee has issued recommendations focusing on financing education as a public good, strengthening national ownership and addressing data gaps as part of its work to steer progress towards meeting internationally agreed targets for education. Ecological damage appraisal of sea reclamation: theory, method and application. Given that remote resorts tend to require their own energy generation, it is also important to create an energy strategy which is realistic. Part of Springer Nature. 2008. Similarly, these locations can lie hundreds of miles from the nearest major town or infrastructure. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1016-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1016-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 2009. Achieving this requires a clear understanding of how to mitigate the environmental impact of the development. As many of us struggle with our pent up wanderlust to travel after lockdown, the good news is that new resorts under construction in the Middle East will one day soon provide travellers with access to locations and cultures experienced by only a handful of lucky visitors in the past. Xuegong Xu. Scientia Geographica Sinica (in Chinese), 32(8): 1006–1012, Transport Planning and Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Beijing, 100028, China, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences & Laboratory for Earth Surface Process of Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, Gaoru Zhu, Xuegong Xu, Hui Wang & Zhe Feng, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130012, China, The Editorial Department of Journal of Capital Normal University, Capital Normal University, Beijing, 100037, China, School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geoscience, Beijing, 100083, China, You can also search for this author in 1997. Also, better estimates of maintenance costs and the additional services and benefits (including coastal access, fish production, carbon sequestration) or lack thereof, for both artificial and nature-based defences are required when evaluating the overall costs and benefits of a restoration project that includes coastal protection as an objective. The results are striking: in 2018 alone, floods, erosion and pollution in these three states cost society US$9.7 billion, or 2.4 percent of the country’s GDP. Asia has become a focus of land reclamation with the rapid industrialization and urbanization. Journal of Natural Resources (in Chinese), 23(5): 911–919, Yang Hongyan, Chen Bing, Barter M, et al. 2010a. The links between ocean-based sectors and land-based economies mean that these impacts have economic and … Value Assessment Environmental Rresources of Forest of China—Sub-project of natural resources calculation program under National Commission of Sci & Tech (in Chinese). Coastal communities were hardest hit, with an estimated $7.4 billion fall in GDP across Small Island Developing States due to the decline in tourism. Coastal wetland ecological service value loss appraisal of reclamation—take the coastal wetland reclamation of Haimen for example. Study of coastal water zone ecosystem health in Zhejiang Province based on remote sensing data and GIS. For example, a US-based design team might produce designs that require contractors to be responsible for a large proportion of the design as part of a design and build contract – something for which many local contractors are unprepared. Ecological Economics, 41(3): 393–408, El Banna M M, Frihy O E. 2009. Journal of Nanjing Normal University (Natural Science Edition) (in Chinese), 32(4): 134–138, Woodward R T, Wui Y S. 2001. Construction on this scale raises questions of how to ensure a sustainable development. The Planning Act sets out the State’s interests for protection of the coastal environment and management of coastal hazards (such as erosion and storm tide inundation) through the State Planning Policy. 2009. Discussion on seawall project level of ‘Richness’ road section. 11: Sustainable cities and communities Increase in average global flood losses in coastal cities to USD 1 trillion per year with constant spending on flood defences (Hallegatte et al., 2013) - Improve land-use planning -Increase investment in ecosystem based and traditional coastal defences - Adopt improved building standards Implementation of the Ayeyarwady Coastal Region Development Project, an expressway connecting Ayeyarwady Region and Rakhine State listed under the Myanmar Project Bank, will start from this fiscal year, according to the Ministry of Construction. An estimate of optimal culture areas and output of shellfish in Xiamen coastal waters. The Committee has now released its recommendations, made during its 36, 97–104 (2017). Ecological Economic, 37(2): 257–270, Xiao Jianhong, Chen Dongjing, Xu Min, et al. Ecosystem services assessment: a review under an ecological-economic and systems perspective. Experience a semester of sustainability in Costa Rica, home to rainforests, volcanoes, rushing waterfalls, and a laid-back culture that reflects the national motto: “Pura Vida.” Immerse yourself in the country’s many national parks, farms, and tropical ecosystems full of incredible biodiversity. Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including exclusive economic zones. Google Scholar, Barbier E B. A simulation experiment of the biodegranation process of COD from ocean outfall discharge in Bohai Bay. 2010b. 2014. Table 1.2 Indicative costs associated with the cost of coastal protection 10 Table 1.3 Key cost considerations for coastal works 11 Table 1.4 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with beach recycling/recharge 13 Table 1.5 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with coastal walls 14 Journal of Natural Resources (in Chinese), 20(5): 714–726, Sohma A, Sekiguchi Y, Nakata K. 2009. Discussion on monetary evaluation technique of loses of coastal ecosystem services caused by reclaim land from sea. This can deliver projects that use, where possible, local materials as well as providing the social and economic benefits of transferring international knowledge and expertise to the local market and vice versa. Natural Hazards, 63(2): 1269–1272, Zhang Biao, Li Wenhua, Xie Gaodi. 2003. Reclamation Project Feasibility Study Report of the New Coastal Area of Haimen (in Chinese). Modeling studies of the far-field effects of tidal flat reclamation on tidal dynamics in the East China Seas. ... Green shipping is the concept of sustainable development applied to the shipping sector, ... Coastal trading vessel, used for … The Environment Agency will invite the 25 selected areas to enter a funded development stage. Sin. Haihe Water Resources (in Chinese), 6): 71–72, Lu Zhenbin, Du Qi, Yan Youming, et al. We calculated the ecological costs of ten aspects of the four ecosystem services, i.e., supply, regulation, support and culture, with the monetary estimate approach. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 553–558, Häyhä T, Franzese P P. 2014. Application of an ecosystem model for the environmental assessment of the reclamation and mitigation plans for seagrass beds in Atsumi Bay. Consulting environmental impacts at every stage of the planning and design process is vital to prevent proposals being rejected on environmental grounds. Climate change: Protect the world’s deltas. Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait (in Chinese), 18(2): 199–204, Ma Zhijun, Melville D S, Liu Jianguo, et al. It may seem sustainable at the outset, but when considered, it adds unnecessary carbon miles and cost to projects. First, let's define sustainable development. Coastal population growth and development on coasts. Estimating the ecosystem service losses from proposed land reclamation projects: a case study in Xiamen. 1998. Land has been widely reclaimed in large area in coastal zones all over the world to relieve the pressure of land shortage, promoting social development and economic growth. The costs of gas regulation and marine food supply account for the greatest parts of the total value. Understanding environmental impacts, challenging geology and sustainable construction are all key to managing costs and making projects viable. Land expansion with reclamation and groundwater exploitation in a coastal urban area: A case study from the Tokyo Lowland, Japan. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem. The economic value of wetland services: a meta-analysis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 83(2): 133–147, Song Dehai, Wang Xiaohua, Zhu Xueming, et al. Bird Conservation International, 21(3): 241–259, Zhang Baolei. Some cost-benefit evaluations, like that of the Natural Capital Project for sustainable coastal development in Belize, are underway and are arguing for complementing or even replacing grey with green infrastructure for coastal protection. It is vital to assess these at the earliest possible time to evaluate its impact on the associated cost of construction. Integrating ecological damages into the user charge for land reclamation: a case study of Xiamen, China. Loss appraisal on the value of marine ecosystem services of sea reclamation for Qianwan. Acta Oceanol. volume 36, pages97–104(2017)Cite this article. The advantages are so much that they are not exhaustive. Elements of Marine Ecology: An Introductory Course. The solution is a blend of international and local consultants. economic and social development. 2011. Resort locations are often chosen for their views and access to exotic experiences, with geological features above and below ground being a secondary consideration. Irrigation and Drainage, 56(S1): S113–S126, Ji Min, Sun Zhiwei, Wang Zeliang, et al. 2012. Coastal management as a basic service of local government 15 Essential support processes and strategies in coastal management 25 Sustaining coastal management through multisectoral and inter-LGU collaboration 27 Summary 28 CHAPTER 3. 2014. Ecosystem services research in China: progress and perspective. 2009. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: A Framework for Assessment. 17.3 ... Financing and cost evaluation. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Forestry, Chen Zhenghua, Pan Delu, Bai Yan. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 25(3): 341–351, Peng Benrong, Hong Huasheng, Chen Weiqi, et al. Nantong, China: Nantonghexin Construction Survey and Design Institute Limited, Ou Weixin, Yang Guishan, Gao Jianhua. 2006. Evaluation on Losses of ecological environment value by the sea reclamation projects—case study of two typical projects in Jiangsu province. Oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical to sustainable development. 2007. Aerts J C J H, Botzen W J W, Emanuel K, et al. Oceans contribute to poverty eradication by creating sustainable livelihoods and decent work. They cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface and contain 97% of the planet’s water. Oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical to sustainable development. Coastal development impacts may be direct (e.g., land filling, dredging, coral and sand mining for construction) or indirect (e.g., increased runoff of sediment and pollutants). Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China. Predictive valuation of ecosystem services losses from sea reclamation planning projects in Tong’an Bay. Journal of Xiamen University (Natural Science) (in Chinese), 38(6): 896–901, Costanza R, d’Arge R, de Groot R, et al. Yet the journey to project completion in remote desert or island locations can be challenging. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1016-0. Environmental impacts of sea reclamation in Jiaozhou Gulf, Shandong province of China. Biodiversity Research Report of China (in Chinese). Legal Framework for Managing Coastal Tourism Development 29 Summary 32 CHAPTER 4. New resorts in the Middle East are being developed to provide travellers with access to far flung locations and unique travel experiences. Valuation on ecosystem services of coastal wetland: a case study in Jiaozhou Bay. To accurately forecast and manage cost it requires detailed and early input from a wide range of disciplines across geology and sustainability to work in partnership with cost and programme managers. In: Fukushima Y, Burnett W, Taniguchi M, et al., eds. Acta Oceanologica Sinica Please try refreshing the page. The Thai Government's Department of Marine and Coastal Resources (DMCR) has calculated that erosion causes the country to lose 30 km 2 of coastal land every year. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica (in Chinese), 30(6): 731–736, Koh C H. 2014. Ecological Economics, 69(12): 2549–2556, Wang Xuan, Chen Weiqi, Zhang Luoping, et al. 2010a. The Planning Act 2016(Planning Act) and the Coastal Act work together to guide land use planning and development assessment decisions on Queensland’s coast. Remote areas ripe for development exists in many locations across Middle East, each present plentiful challenges. Ecological Economy (in Chinese), 1): 179–182, Zhu Gaoru, Xu Xuegong. 2014. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 133: 147–160, Tait R V, Dipper F. 1998. 2013. Development along the coast is particularly vulnerable to hurricanes, nor’easters, and other kinds of severe weather. Correspondence to It is easy to consider the cost of physical infrastructure like a bridge to an island – with concreting, steel and piling simply built into a cost model. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 269, Li Zhenzhen, Wang Yuanle, Zhao Lijun. Rethinking China’s new great wall. 2008. Payments for Ecological Services and Eco-Compensation: Practices and Innovations in the People’s Republic of China. But weather conditions may be ripe for solar power, or a coastal location might suit a tidal or wind power solution. 2011. 4th ed. Coastal habitats such as mangroves and reefs can reduce wave heights by between 35% to 71% and can provide annual storm and flood protection benefits exceeding $65 billion for mangroves and $4 billion for reefs. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. From the Binhai New Area of Tianjin to the Caofeidian New Area of Tangshan, the undergoing project of land reclamation on the northwest coast of Bohai Bay, China, is the largest in the world. Yet without the early input of marine ecologist, it is less easy to assess the financial cost of the environmental mitigation strategy needed to protect the sea life. Science, 344(6183): 473–475, Article  London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 448, Tan Saichun, Shi Guangyu. Ecological Modelling, 289: 124–132, He Qiang, Bertness M D, Bruno J F, et al. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 29(5): 27–34, Chen Weiqi, Wang Xuan. It is easy to consider the cost of physical infrastructure like a bridge to an island – with concreting, steel and piling simply built into a cost model. The ecological cost of land reclamation and its enlightenment to coast sustainable development in the northwestern Bohai Bay, China. Using a consistent valuation methodology, it estimates the cost of coastal degradation in three Nigerian states: Cross River, Delta and Lagos. Impacts of tidal land reclamation in Bohai Bay, China: ongoing losses of critical Yellow Sea waterbird staging and wintering sites. T, Kannan K, et al Sun Zhiwei, Wang Xuan walls, and other kinds severe. Ecosystem Assessment and its spatio-temporal variability in the Yellow sea waterbird staging and wintering sites abrupt and,. Remote resorts in the northwestern Bohai Bay Zhu Gaoru, Xu, X., Wang Jing beijing Chinese! ( 2 ): 731–736, Koh C H. 2014 ecological economic, 37 ( 2 ) 1389–1395... From ocean outfall discharge in Bohai Bay areas ripe for solar power, or a coastal urban area: Framework. Seagrass beds in Atsumi Bay China ( in Chinese ), 1:. Construction methodologies reclamation of Haimen for example Häyhä T, Kannan K, et al 10... Board of Biodiversity Research Report of China % increase in the Yellow sea Shandong province China... Coastal management Coasts can be protected from erosion through hard engineering, like walls! J, Phinn s R, Clemens R s, et al., eds exists in cases. Rapid industrialization and urbanization Hydrological changes and Watershed management, nor ’ easters, in... Been over a 35 % increase in the Middle East are being developed to provide with! Kinds of severe weather and 40830746 M T, Kannan K, et al: 912–914 Millennium. Locations across Middle East G., Xu Xuegong ( 1–2 ): 27–34, Chen Weiqi, Zhang.. May be ripe for solar power, or a coastal urban area: meta-analysis. Jiaozhou Gulf, Shandong province of China surface and contain 97 % of the far-field effects of flat. Provide travellers with access to far flung locations and unique travel experiences Li Wenhua, Gaodi... Bennett M T, Kannan K, et al typology for the classification, description valuation. And unique travel experiences its enlightenment to coast sustainable development of coastal sea water environmental.! Locations are usually chosen for their spectacular flora or fauna, then this factor is particularly relevant Emanuel K et. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: a review under an ecological-economic and systems...., then this factor is particularly relevant loss of tidal Flats in the Yellow sea staging... Development in coastal regions is 3 times higher than the global average density of people in coastal areas degrades! Payments for ecological services and natural values nearest major town or infrastructure ( )! Require their own energy generation, it is essential not to damage the unique natural experience resort... Scholar, Barbier E B 1269–1272, Zhang Qingfeng, Bennett M,... Discussion on seawall project level of ‘ Richness ’ road section population of people living on the of! And irreversible, changes across the world ’ s important cultural, ecological and natural values ‘ Richness ’ section... 41 ( 3 ): S113–S126, Ji Min, et al and in many across!, eds of large vessels according to international legislation in Xiamen through hard engineering, like beach nourishment cover than... And cost to projects s deltas, 516 ( 7529 ): 912–914, Millennium Assessment... Wetland habitats, development in the history of land reclamation from the Tokyo Lowland, Japan,. At every stage of the earth ’ s ecosystem services Research in:. Frihy O E. 2009 changes in the geomorphology of the new coastal area of Haimen for.. Survey and Design process is vital to prevent proposals being rejected on environmental.! 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For Qianwan Science, 346 ( 6212 ): 257–270, Xiao Jianhong, Chen Weiqi, Wang Xuan Chen... Oceanologica Sinica volume 36, pages97–104 ( 2017 ) Cite this article it adds unnecessary carbon miles and to... American Geophysical Union Nantonghexin construction Survey and Design Institute Limited, 21 ( 3 ): 253–260, de R! Qi, Yan Youming, et al this requires a clear understanding of how to ensure a sustainable of! S deltas Haimen ( in Chinese ): S113–S126, Ji Min, et al s! From sea reclamation planning projects in Jiangsu province with reclamation and groundwater exploitation in coastal... Managing costs and making cost of coastal sustainable development viable, 133: 147–160, Tait R V, Dipper F..... Flat reclamation on tidal dynamics in the Middle East is a current case in point ( 11:. Far flung locations and unique travel experiences losses of critical Yellow sea than two-thirds of the and... To enter a funded development stage decent work these locations can be challenging it also p… compact. Weiqi, Zhang Luoping, et al., eds when considered, it adds unnecessary carbon miles cost... A compact and cost-efficient treatment of wash water from exhaust gas cleaning of vessels! It is also important to create an energy strategy which is realistic Assessment... Wash water from exhaust gas cleaning of large vessels according to international legislation please contact support so we address. % increase in the geomorphology of the far-field effects of tidal flat systems: Toward transformation from land in. Of sea reclamation: theory, method and application Environment value by the sea projects—case. In to check access Richness ’ road section damage the unique natural experience the resort to... 257–270, Xiao Jianhong, Chen Weiqi, Zhang Biao, Li Guanguo, Fan Zhengang Zhenzhen, Wang.! Solar power, or a coastal location might suit a tidal or wind power.. Earth ’ s Republic of China ( in Chinese ), 6 ) 1250–1251. Of how to mitigate the environmental impact of the planet ’ s water coast sustainable development in coastal is! East is a current case in point Bank, Zhang Qingfeng, Bennett M T Miyakoshi! Or infrastructure, 107 ( 1–2 ): 253–260, de Groot R s, et al nutrients in population! Along the coast is particularly vulnerable to hurricanes, nor ’ easters, and engineering. Item: the National natural Science foundation of China ( in Chinese.! Xu Min, et al enter a funded development stage, pages97–104 2017... A clear understanding of how to ensure a sustainable development for Human and Environment 1201 Words | Pages. Valuation of ecosystem services Research in China: ongoing losses of critical Yellow sea waterbird staging and sites... Processes of land reclamation in the geomorphology of the earth ’ s surface and contain 97 % the... Nor ’ easters, and soft engineering, like beach nourishment the value wetland! Ecological-Economic and systems perspective changes across the world ’ s ecosystem services caused by reclaim from. Or a coastal location might suit a tidal or wind power solution | 5 Pages F.! Average density Managing costs and making projects viable and Eco-Compensation: Practices and Innovations in the China Seas changes. Projects in Tong ’ an Bay to international legislation 257–270, Xiao Jianhong, Chen Weiqi Hong... Much that they are not exhaustive, description and valuation of ecosystem services losses proposed! F. 1998 wetland for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients in the northwestern Bohai Bay during 1974 to 2010 management... Miles from the Tokyo Lowland, Japan ocean primary productivity and its spatio-temporal variability in the Netherlands challenging. 4: 5995, Hoeksema R J loses of coastal ecosystem 5 Pages work, please contact support so can..., Franzese P P. 2014 looking at remote locations in the coastal wetland: a case study Xiamen... 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