Rupture of the extensor carpi radialis tendon allows the carpus to hyperflex during the swing phase at walk and may cause the horse to stumble or fall at trot because it cannot protract the forelimb rapidly enough. A further benefit of using tendon elasticity rather than muscular force is that the tendon has low energy dissipation, returning an impressive 93% of the work done stretching it and with only 7% dissipation as heat. Figure 6. This is in contrast to brachialis, which acts as an elbow flexor in early swing (Tokuriki et al., 1989) and contributes to the flexor moment at the elbow at this time in walk (Clayton et al., 2000a, b) and trot (Lanovaz et al., 1999). This means that optimal conformation of the forelimbs is particularly important in performance horses and that a basic knowledge of conformation is very useful when purchasing a horse. Fig 6.1 Two methods of measuring joint angles of the forelimbs with the measured angles being represented by black arcs. In the equine forelimb, artifacts due to skin displacement may be small enough to be negligible on the antebrachial and metacarpal segments, but are large enough to alter sagittal plane kinematics significantly on the scapular, brachial, and pastern segments. When fibers insert into the tendon at an angle (pennation angle), the amount of force transmitted to the tendon is determined as force developed in the fiber multiplied by the cosine of the pennation angle. Recoil of the stretched biceps tendon in the galloping horse has been described as a catapult mechanism that provides rapid acceleration of the distal forelimb (Wilson & Watson, 2003). The superficial digital flexor (SDF) muscle has a much smaller volume than the DDF muscle. Conformational differences exist between the lighter types of horse such as the Arab and Thoroughbred, and the heavier draught horses such as the Shire. (Note that ulnaris lateralis represents the extensor carpi ulnaris but, since its distal attachment is to the accessory carpal bone in horses, it acts as a carpal flexor rather than a carpal extensor.) Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological Verification So the aim of this study was to elucidate the gross anatomical outline of forelimb bones of Asian elephant and to contribute in the field of radiological and forensic studies. Draught horses also tend to be more upright though the shoulder and the pastern, giving them a short, jarring stride, while the sloping shoulder and pastern of the Thoroughbred give a longer, springy stride. A stride is regarded as the unit of measurement. 6.3) and rhomboideus are the smallest extrinsic muscles of the forelimb and have medium-length fibers (Table 6.2) (Payne et al., 2004). Furthermore, the angle may be expressed in absolute terms or it may be normalized to the standing angle, the angle at ground contact or the average angle during the stride (Mullineaux et al., 2004). Typical marker configurations involve either placing a marker over the center of rotation of each joint or aligning two markers along the long axis of each segment (Fig. The biarticular long head (mass, 3200–6663 g; fiber length, 19–26 mm) and the monoarticular lateral head (mass, 514–1240 g; fiber length, 17–24 mm) comprise 81% and 15%, respectively, of the extensor muscle mass at the elbow (Ryan et al., 1992). Seen from the side and front the forelimbs should be straight. During trotting, the elbow has well-defined bursts of energy absorption on the extensor side of the joint in early stance followed by energy generation on the extensor aspect in midstance (Clayton et al., 1998). By comparison, muscles in the distal limb are smaller and less powerful with short, pennate fibers that are not capable of a large amount of shortening but are well suited to contract isometrically. Trapezius (Fig. In the equine antebrachial muscles, a close inverse relationship between muscle fiber length and pennation angle has been demonstrated (Brown et al., 2003), and this relationship may be true for other anatomical areas. The architectural properties of these muscles have been described (Hermanson, 1997; The deep digital flexor (DDF) has three distinct muscle bellies, humeral, ulnar and radial, each of which is innervated by a separate branch of the median nerve suggestive of neuromuscular compartmentalization (Zarucco et al., 2004). Skin displacement relative to the underlying bones is always a concern when kinematic studies are based on skin-fixed markers. This enables concussive forces to be absorbed equally by all components of the limb. At this time, the net joint moment is on the cranial side of the joints (Lanovaz et al., 1999) indicating that the biarticular extensor carpi radialis is flexing the elbow to protract the limb and is controlling the inertially driven carpal flexion (Colborne et al., 1997a, b). The concept of the forelimb acting as a spring implies that changes in joint angles as the limb accepts weight result in shortening of the bony column and stretching of the musculotendinous units. 6.4). The basic components are the humerus (h), ulna (u), radius (n), carpals (c), metacarpals (m), and phalanges (p) in the five digits Label the corresponding forelimb bones of â¦ Serratus ventralis thoracis is the primary muscular component of the thoracic sling, which suspends the trunk between the forelimbs and controls the position of the thorax and withers relative to the scapulae when the forelimbs are weight-bearing. 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