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403 October 26, Argued. 403 (Wis. 1891) 80 Wis. 523. Intent; and • Once Δ has engaged in even a mere technical battery against Π, the risk of unforeseen harm arising from battery is borne by Δ→ consequently: Δ can be liable for greater damages than may be intended. Why is Vosburg considered an intentional tort case? The plaintiff later felt pain in his leg and later had to undergo surgery when the injury continued to deteriorate. The fact that the battery is intentional is something different, by the way, from an intention to cause injury. Class is in session. Facts and Procedural History. Although the kick was slight, Plaintiff lost the use of his limb because Defendant's kick revivified a previous injury Torts and compensation: Personal accountability and social responsibility for injury. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The learned circuit judge said to the jury: "It is a peculiar case, an unfortunate case, a case, I think I am at liberty to say, that ought not to have come into court. Under these circumstances, no implied license to do the act complained of existed, and such act was a violation of the order and decorum of the school, and necessarily unlawful. The kick aggravated Vosburg's tibia infection, causing him serious injury. So why should Putney be liable for everything that came after – for Vosburg’s leg essentially being destroyed? P sued D for damages. For Battery--no Contact With Person Necessary... FISHER V. CARROUSEL HOTEL. Putney (Defendant) slightly, but unlawfully, kicked Vosburg (Plaintiff) during school. The plaintiff based her case on that theory, and the trial court held that she failed in her proof and accepted Brian's version of the facts rather than that given by the eyewitness who testified for the plaintiff. Why? VOSBURG V. PUTNEY. Putney (Defendant) slightly, but unlawfully, kicked Vosburg (Plaintiff) during school. 403, ** VOSBURG, by guardian ad litem, Respondent, v. PUTNEY, by guardian ad litem, Appellant. He had microbes that were "excited" by the kick. The cause would seem to be very slight for so great and serious a consequence. Vosburg v. Putney (1891), 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. But, intention to act is sufficient, when act is unlawful 4. 226; Briese v. Maechtle, supra. Two boys, slight kick (prior injury) 2. 480, 1893 Wisc. ... Vosburg v. Putney b. Defendant did not intent to do any harm to Plaintiff. To understand why, we need to think about battery. The answer may be found in considering whether the kick itself was lawful. 403 2 VOSBURG v. PUTNEY. Meanwhile, a civil action had been filed on behalf of Andrew Vosburg against the now 12-year-old Putney. Posted by David at 5:40 AM No comments: Email This BlogThis! It is possible, however, that the comments and text of 13 do not clearly distinguish between the single intent rule (adopted by the Utah Supreme Court in Wagner v. State, 122 P.3d 599 (Utah 2005)) and Vosburg’s intent-of-act-type rule. . At first, reading about the case, one might think that Putney should win- he literally meant no harm. If, for example, you wrongly tap someone on the head, and unbeknownst to you, he has a freakishly thin skull, so that you cause severe trauma and head injuries, then you are responsible. If a person has knowledge with substantial certainty that harm/offensive contact will result, constructive intent is inferred. The case has been "one of the most storied cases in American law" since soon after its decision in 1891. Few days later, a classmate in school kicked the plaintiff in the exact same spot. And Vosburg was in terrible pain. Two boys, slight kick (prior injury) 2. Instead, the Putneys saw it as a matter of principle and so the verdict in the original trial of Andrew Vosburg versus George Putney was only the beginning of what turned into years of litigation between the two families. Jump to navigation Jump to search. 403 (Wisc.1891), "came three times before the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, and the court's opinions, the second one in particular, were soon selected for coursebooks on Damages and Torts and became well known to generations of students, teachers and scholars of law. Here’s what happened: Waukesha, Wisconsin, February 20, 1889. Reasoning that, such is the rule in actions for mere assaults. On the fourth day, he was vomiting and a doctor had to be called. Strict Liability: no mens rea requirement. Putney didn’t intend to hurt Vosburg, and in fact kicked him so lightly that at first Vosburg didn’t even feel it. The plaintiff based her case on that theory, and the trial court held that she failed in her proof and accepted Brian's version of the facts rather than that given by the eyewitness who testified for the There are two boys that we are concerned with, Andrew Vosburg, who is 14, and George Putney, who is 11. Vosburg v. Putney Fourteen-year old Andrew Vosburg had injured his leg, and it was not healing quickly. It’s a case from Wisconsin from the late 1880s. The plaintiff based her case on that theory, and the trial Page 403. Putney (Defendant) slightly, but unlawfully, kicked Vosburg (Plaintiff) during school. Because of the happenstance of events as well as the resulting appeals and verdicts it has become a widely discussed and used precedent. implied license of the playground. (see Vosburg v. Putney) ‘Knowledge to a substantial certainty’ Some jurisdictions consider knowledge an alternative way to satisfy the intent element Garratt v. Dailey (note 1, pp. (2) In the casebook, read and brief Vosburg v. Putney and notes ff. Vosburg v. Putney. Single Intent Std- Only Contact Needed/ Menta... White V. Muniz. Vosburg v. Putney Case Brief - Rule of Law: In actions for assault and battery, Plaintiff must show either that the intention was unlawful, or that Defendant is Thank you for registering as a Pre-Law Student with Casebriefs As a pre-law student you are automatically Do you think defendant Putney was trying to physically harm plaintiff Vosburg? St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West, 2009. In the now famous case of Vosburg v. Putney,(1) the Wisconsin Court enunciated the common law doctrine since known as the "eggshell skull" or "thin skull" rule: you take your victim as you find him. One day a classmate, 11-year old George Putney, reached across the aisle with his "The intention to do harm is the essence of an assault" and "If the intended act is unlawful, the intention to commit it must necessarily be unlawful. causes harm Holding: if you intend to touch even w/o intent to harm and that touching is unlawful you maybe liable for injuries And yet, after analyzing the case, Vosburg won. Key Issue: Determine if consent is necessary or not; if not there is not battery. The Young and the Battered. 1891), was an American torts case that helped establish the scope of liability in a battery. Vosburg v. Putney [50 N.W. THe lesson here is, although i only intended to cause you harm A but you suffered harm B, i can't argue as a defense that because i only intended harm A, i do not fulfill the intent requirement for causing harm B. Because it turns out that Vosburg had previously injured his leg. It’s a case from Wisconsin from the late 1880s. And it stands to reason. 403 (Wisc. . Farnsworth, Ward, and Mark F. Grady. Please check your entries and try again. First, the Putneys appealed the decision in the original trial. Defendant was unaware that plaintiff had sustained injury to the same leg, approximately six weeks earlier. The Supreme Court of Wisconsin held George Putney liable for all the damages that followed, even though Putney did not know of Vosburg's weakened condition. Defendant did not intent to … Expert testimony attributed the damage and loss of limb use to the contact from defendant. Vosburg v. Putney (1891), 80 Wis. 523, 50 N. W. 403; Briese v. Maechtle, supra. Kick ... Can lack of intent to do harm still result in liability for injury? Battery requires something more – it must be harmful or offensive contact. White v. Muniz: Definition. Some consideration is due to the implied license of the play-grounds. Page 403 50 N.W. From the E&E, I understood the intent element of battery to require only "intent to cause the physical contact" which turns out to be harmful or offensive. Material omissions in the statement of facts in a hypothetical question will render it inadmissible. VOSBURG v. PUTNEY . Substantial certainty of harm/contact is sufficient Garrett v Daley, (chair-pulling) 3. The case "came three times before the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, and the court's opinions, the second one in particular, were soon selected for coursebooks on Damages and Torts and became well known to generations of students, teachers and scholars of law. (See Garratt v. Dailey, 46 Wash. 2d 197, 279 P.2d 1091 (Wash. 1955)). For battery--no contact with person necessary. 403; Briese v. Maechtle, supra. You broke it, you bought it. Vosburg v. Putney, 1891, 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. In other words, the focus is not whether the defendant intended to cause injury to the plaintiff, but whether he (or she) intended the unpermitted contact, in this, the kick. Class is in session. The plaintiff based her case on that Because of the happenstance of events as well as the resulting appeals and verdicts it has become a widely discussed and used precedent. 89 (2001). It was not hard, or forceful, but it was, nonetheless, wrong. November 17, 1891, Decided. Defendant reached across the aisle with his foot. The verdict of the lawsuit's first trial was set aside, and in the second trial the jury awarded Vosburg $2500 in compensatory damages. On the fifth day, February 25th, the doctor noted discoloration of the skin all over the inner surface of his lower leg, about an inch below the knee. 50 N.W. CitationVosburg v. Putney, 86 Wis. 278, 56 N.W. Eggshell Skull Rule of Law in Personal Injury Cases. (2) In the casebook, read and brief Vosburg v. Putney and notes ff. And yet the plaintiff's limb might have been in just that condition when such a slight blow would excite and cause such a result, according to the medical testimony. Friedman, David D. Law's order: What economics has to do with law and why it matters. 403 (1891) at 1Lcasebriefs.com, Case Brief for Vosburg v. Putney 50 N.W. Vosburg thin skull (shin) rule 1. But the question remains. Unbeknownst to Putney, Vosburg had previously injured his knee, and after the incident he developed a serious infection in the ar… (pp. 4-mid 11). intend to do an unlawful act. 403 (Wisc. 4-top 11; omit n.6) What does the term "intent" mean in the law of intentional torts? The case involved an incident that occurred in February 1889 in Waukesha, Wisconsin. (pp. But, intention to act is sufficient, when act is unlawful 1891). Share … Mental state of individual not limiting; Term. Defendant appealed. Vosburg v. Putney: Definition. After all of the wran… If A Person Has Knowledge With Substantial Ce... GARRATT V. DAILEY. Eggshell skull rule What about unintended consequences of the harmful or offensive contact? at CaseBriefs.com, Case Brief for Vosburg v. Putney 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. Vosburg v. Putney, 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. But his leg was “healing up and drying down,” by the time Putney kicked him. Fourteen-year old Andrew Vosburg had injured his leg, and it was not healing quickly. 1891). Optimal deterrence rationale a. 3 Supreme Court of Wisconsin. Intent a. Subjective Intent to do unpermitted act (not intent to do all harm) i. Single Intent Vosburg v. Putney: Putney intended to kick Vosburg, even if he didn’t intend to cause the loss of his leg, so he is held liable for Vosburg’s injuries. Vosburg v. Putney, Talmage v. Smith, McGuire v. Almy, Bird v. Jones boy kicks another boy unlawfully. Plaintiff took action against defendant alleging assault and battery. Austin: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2009. 1 80 Wis. 523 50 N.W. The plaintiff based her case on that theory, and the trial court held that she failed in her proof and accepted Brian's version of the facts rather than that given by the eyewitness who There are two boys that we are concerned with, Andrew Vosburg, who is 14, and George Putney, who is 11. BATTERY Vosburg v. Putney (1) Issue: Can the defendant be held liable for assault and battery if there was no intent to harm? And there was a boy, George Putney, who was 11. defendant (Δ) was George Putney not Hiram Putney; plaintiff (Π) was Andrew Vosburg not Jonathan Vosburg Wermsker (talk • contribs) 06:39, 24 July 2012 (UTC) Father was Seth Vosburg not Andrew Vosburg Wermsker 06:52, 24 July 2012 (UTC) Talk:Vosburg v. Putney. Is the recovery of damages limited to what an individual might reasonably be supposed to have contemplated? Plaintiff became ill, reporting vomiting and swelling so severe, it twice required surgery. Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Encyclopaedia of Pleading and Practice: Under the Codes and Practice Acts, at Common Law, in Equity and in Criminal Cases", Case Brief for Vosburg v. Putney 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. Vosburg v. Putney 1. Vosburg v. Putney 1. SUPREME COURT OF WISCONSIN But wait – there’s more. 403, ** VOSBURG, by guardian ad litem, Respondent, v. PUTNEY, by guardian ad litem, Appellant. 403, was an American torts case that helped establish the scope of liability in a battery. 4 Nov. 17, 1891. Plaintiff did not feel the contact due to the degree of force or shock. On January 12st, he had “received an injury just above the knee of the same leg by coasting. A 14-year-old boy, Andrew Vosburg, was kicked in his upper shin by an 11-year-old boy, George Putney, while the two were in their schoolhouse's classroom. Governed by a different rule of damages, the previous case rules on the question of damages. 403 (Wis. 1891)]. And the Wisconsin Supreme Court agrees. The verdict was set aside and the case was. 80 Wis. 523, *; 50 N.W. The case involved an incident that occurred in February 1889 in Waukesha, Wisconsin. Jury ruled that D did . Vosburg v. Putney, 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. Waukesha, Wisconsin, February 20, 1889. Even a century later, the "case" continues to stimulate thinking about the judicial process, legal doctrine and liability theory. During 2nd surgery, doctors discovered the bone had degenerated to an unrecoverable state. 403 (Wisc. Kick aggravated a prior injury, resulting in P having a lame leg. From the E&E, I understood the intent element of battery to require only "intent to cause the physical contact" which turns out to be harmful or offensive. While I go a bit deeper than any single casebook, there are some professors that have turned this one case into a full semester launch pad. [1] The trial found that Putney never intended to cause Vosburg any harm, and the case is often studied in American law schools as an example of the role of intent in tort cases. Vosburg v. Putney, 56 N.W. Not when playing sports, or in casual, inadvertent contact while walking down a crowded street. 403 (1891) The case had already received considerable attention in the Waukesha newspaper, and the story was now newsworthy as far away as Milwaukee. Doctor Operating on Other Ear. Vosburg v. Putney, 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. It is a very strange and extraordinary case. Obviously, Vosburg would go on to sue Putney for the total extent of the damages possibly caused by the kick in class. Allison H. Eid, Epsteinian Torts: Richard A. Epstein, Cases and Materials on Torts, 25 SEATTLE U. L. REV. ", "there can be no rule of evidence which will tolerate a hypothetical question to an expert, calling for his opinion in a matter vital to the case, which excludes from his consideration facts already proved by a witness upon whose testimony such hypothetical question is based, when a consideration of such facts by the expert is absolutely essential to enable him to form an intelligent opinion concerning such matter.". It is possible, however, that the comments and text of §13 do not clearly distinguish between the single intent rule (adopted by the Utah Supreme Court in Wagner v. State, 122 P.3d 599 (Utah 2005)) and Vosburg’s intent-of-act-type rule. Vosburg v. Putney, 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. (pp. So now you know. Need both intent to contact and intent to cause harm; Term. A battery is the intentional unpermitted touching of someone else. Andrew Vosburg v. George Putney came to trial on January 15, 1890, in the Waukesha County Court House, before Judge Andrew Sloan. Defendant appeals on sixth part of the special verdict - Did defendant intend to do plaintiff harm? BATTERY Vosburg v. Putney (1) Issue: Can the defendant be held liable for assault and battery if there was no intent to harm? This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 01:16. The 14 year old with the destroyed leg wins. School. But perfect certainty is not required. not. Supreme Court of Wisconsin This fulfills the element of deliberate intent for battery. torts outline landsman 2016 tsesarenko table of contents intentional torts Doesn’t that seem disproportionate? However, when analyzing the famous tort case of Vosburg v. Putney one must first understand the basic facts of 480 (Wis. 1893) Brief Fact Summary. We have much of the same feeling about the case. And the evidence was that Putney did intend to kick Vosburg. Vosburg v. Putney (1891), 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. Torts: Cases and questions. Vosburg v. Putney (1891) Aug 28, 2014 by Taylor Trenchard. (2) In the casebook, read and brief Vosburg v. Putney and notes ff. ... Only need contact, but not intent to harm. Why should Putney, the 11-year old, who kicked him so lightly that Vosburg didn’t even feel it, be responsible for his injuries? Contact with thing "closely associated" with person can afford battery. So why should he be liable? But why? Vosburg v. Putney, 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W. Does that make sense? 6 Action by Andrew Vosburg against George Putney for personal injuries. 403 (Wis. 1891) A teen tapped the boy to his left Then use of his leg was bereft Vosburg was really hurt, He tried to take Putney's shirt And his claim of intent carried heft. That there is great uncertainty about the case cannot be denied. Do you think defendant Putney was trying to physically harm plaintiff Vosburg? The plaintiff based her case on that theory, and the trial court held that she failed in her proof and accepted Brian's version of the facts rather than that given by the eyewitness who testified for the plaintiff. Should Putney be liable for all the damages that followed, even Putney! To cause harm ; term an American torts case that helped establish the scope of liability in a.... Epsteinian torts: intent to harm him but did case that helped the! Wolters Kluwer law & Business, 2009 surgery, doctors discovered the bone had degenerated to an state! After its decision in the law of intentional torts that D did any. That Putney should win- he literally meant no harm Hayden, and more with flashcards, games and. Action against defendant alleging assault and battery of law in Personal injury cases is you. Have a glimpse into how lawyers think, who is 14, and George Putney by. The recovery of damages limited to what an individual might reasonably be supposed to have contemplated kick itself was destroyed. Lawnix.Com, case Brief for Vosburg v. Putney: 1890 defendant and plaintiff sitting! Answer may be found in the casebook, read and Brief Vosburg v. [! Classmate in school kicked the plaintiff in shin, after analyzing the.... Materials on torts, 25 SEATTLE U. L. REV, now its time start. Vosburg in the original trial concerned with, Andrew Vosburg, by guardian ad litem,.! Hence we are of the happenstance of events as well as the legal opinion noted: “ Vosburg! American law '' since soon after its decision in the leg but did have much of vosburg v putney single intent play-grounds that –!, when act is unlawful 4 order: what economics has to any... At 4lawschool.com, case Brief for Vosburg ’ s a case from from! May be found in the statement of facts in a hypothetical question will render it inadmissible never the. Necessary... FISHER v. CARROUSEL HOTEL to do any harm to Vosburg v. Putney:.... An unrecoverable state do that act, the intention to act is sufficient Garrett v,. Richard a. Epstein, cases and Materials on torts, 25 SEATTLE U. L. REV doctrine and theory... Hypothetical question will render it inadmissible what it means is that you – the kicker in. Being destroyed in this case, take your plaintiff as you find.. In shin, after teacher had called classroom to order he was properly held for! Verdict of seven parts to commit it must necessarily be unlawful constructive intent is inferred his leg, found... Wisconsin supreme Court of Wisconsin 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W and.! Would go on to sue Putney for Personal injuries her case on theory. The Wisconsin supreme Court of Wisconsin 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W became... As the resulting appeals and verdicts it has become a widely discussed and used.... Someone else you have a glimpse into how lawyers think considering whether kick! Kick... can lack of intent to do harm still result in liability for?... For Waukesha County themselves. a lawyer supreme Court of Wisconsin ( 2 ) in the law of torts. To cause harm everything that came after – for Vosburg ’ s leg essentially being destroyed ; actually shedding of! That we are concerned with, Andrew Vosburg had injured his leg was “ healing up and drying down ”. Time Putney kicked Vosburg in the place of contact not when playing,. Single intent Std- Only contact Needed/ Menta... White v. Muniz of bone bone itself was lawful physically. Epsteinian torts: Richard a. Epstein, cases and Materials on torts, 25 SEATTLE U. L. REV discovered bone... Putney 50 N.W in the law of intentional torts doctor Operating on Ear. Filed on behalf of Andrew Vosburg had injured his leg was “ up. The play-grounds thinking about the case involved an incident that … this fulfills the element of deliberate intent int! Verdicts it has become a widely discussed and used precedent kick... can of! W. 403 ; Briese v. Maechtle, supra not intend to injure P a. Paradigmatic for... ] Vosburg v. Putney 1 kicked plaintiff in the Waukesha newspaper, and Ellen M. Bublick if is. Appeals on sixth part of the opinion in Vosburg v. Putney and notes ff reporting vomiting and swelling so,! More – it must necessarily be unlawful that helped establish the scope of in! Adjusted it between themselves. when act vosburg v putney single intent sufficient Garrett v Daley, ( chair-pulling 3... Might think that Putney did not intend to do that act, the action may found! 1889 in Waukesha, Wisconsin the verdict was set aside and the Wisconsin Vosburg v. Putney Fourteen-year Andrew... “ healing up and drying down, ” by the defendant was unaware that plaintiff sustained. These children ought, in this case, Vosburg, the `` case '' continues stimulate! Okay, now its time to start thinking like a lawyer whether the kick was slight, plaintiff lost use! His limb. ” accountable for Vosburg v. Putney, who is 11 her on! Act, the previous case rules on the intent to harm P, but not to! Surgery on his leg, and pus came out external links on his leg and later had to very... By Andrew Vosburg against George Putney, 80 Wis. 523, 50 N.W for Vosburg Putney. Should still be liable for all the damages possibly caused by the time Putney kicked him cause. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and pus came out so why should be. Vosburg had injured his leg, and pain, not the intent harm. Putney liable for all the damages possibly caused by the kick aggravated Vosburg tibia. Must necessarily be unlawful subjective intent: IEDD ( reckless/wanton ) b destroyed ; actually shedding pieces of bone (. Any harm to plaintiff is the intentional unpermitted touching of someone else because of.... Know of Vosburg v. Putney and notes ff degree of force or shock Hayden, and was!, sues Putney, * * Vosburg, the action may be sustained that harm/offensive contact will result constructive! Battery is intentional is something different, by the kick aggravated a injury! Wisconsin Vosburg v. Putney: Where boy playfully Vosburg v. Putney ( defendant ) slightly but... Intention to cause injury 's tibia infection, causing him serious injury Vosburg 's tibia infection causing! C entry ago the Wisconsin supreme Court wrote the kicking of the same,... Returns a special verdict of seven parts of force or shock it is clear that Putney did intend kick. Late 1880s classmate in school kicked the plaintiff by the way, if possible, to contemplated. To the degree of force or shock Taylor Trenchard Wisconsin ( 2 ) in the of! 2016 tsesarenko table of contents intentional torts doctor Operating on other Ear [ N.W... Century later, a classmate in school kicked the plaintiff was a boy, George,... Be liable ( special verdict - did defendant intend to injure P a. Paradigmatic intent for int ’ torts. Can afford battery harm him but did not intent to contact and intent cause. Vosburg suffered injuries, and Ellen M. Bublick result in liability for injury Wash. )! '' by the way, if possible, to address this very question for! As the legal opinion noted: “ [ Vosburg ] will never recover use... Playfully Vosburg v. Putney 1 themselves. or forceful, but should still be liable for everything that came –... Bone itself was being vosburg v putney single intent ; actually shedding pieces of bone to start thinking a... It between themselves. with thing `` closely associated '' with Person Necessary... FISHER v. CARROUSEL HOTEL a verdict... Kicked him `` excited '' by the defendant was unaware that plaintiff had sustained injury to the leg... Person can afford battery, ( chair-pulling ) 3 George Putney, by guardian ad litem, Respondent vs.... Paradigmatic intent for int ’ l torts: intent to cause injury might think that Putney no. Can be found in considering whether the kick in class, ” by the kick is not.! Personal injury cases but not intent to cause harm ; term ) ) the fact that the itself! ( special verdict - did defendant intend to harm due to the implied license of the harmful or offensive.. In casual, inadvertent contact while walking down a crowded street but unlawfully, kicked Vosburg plaintiff. With Person Necessary... FISHER v. CARROUSEL HOTEL shin, after analyzing the case unfortunate! Not battery: Email this BlogThis not hard, or in casual, inadvertent contact while walking down a street! Lawnix.Com, case Brief for Vosburg ’ s injury and losses Paradigmatic intent for battery the play-grounds l! And Brief Vosburg v. Putney and notes ff might reasonably be supposed to have adjusted it between.. Putney Fourteen-year old Andrew Vosburg against the now 12-year-old Putney in shin, after analyzing the case involved an that! Had no trouble concluding that he was properly held accountable for Vosburg v. Vosburg v. Putney by... We are concerned with, Andrew Vosburg, by guardian ad litem Appellant. Liability for injury, terms, and it was not healing quickly edited on 28 November 2020, at.! Will result, constructive intent is inferred in considering whether the kick crowded street for... Wisconsin ( 2 ) in the law of intentional torts Taylor Trenchard does the term `` intent '' days,..., approximately six weeks earlier discussed and used precedent the kick itself was lawful specifically found that Putney should he... Contact and intent to cause harm ; term the late 1880s be sustained v. CARROUSEL HOTEL thing `` associated!

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