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Anderson, More than Merkle: A History of the Best and Most Exciting Baseball Season in Human History (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000, xxvii. By the third year of the Civil War, Doubleday was a reliable general and his biographer Thomas Barthel describes him this way: “He has never been given credit he deserves for his actions in the Civil War or later because he was not one of the boys. Abner Doubleday, military officer, son of Ulysses F. and Hester (Donnelly) Doubleday, was born at Ballston Spa, New York, on June 26, 1819. "Bats, Balls, and Bullets". Doubleday was a high-ranking officer, whose duties included seeing to provisions for the US Army fighting throughout the south and border states. Doubleday was a cadet at West Point in the year of the alleged invention and his family had moved away from Cooperstown the prior year. Civil War Union Army Officer. The house of his birth still stands in the middle of town and there is a monument to him on Front Street. A person named Abner Doubleday was living in Cooperstown in 1839; however, he never claimed to have invented baseball. On Cemetery Hill, however, the I Corps could muster only a third of its men as effective for duty, and the corps was essentially destroyed as a combat force for the rest of the battle; it would be decommissioned in March 1864, its surviving units consolidated into other corps. Gumpert’s work on Doubleday supplies much of this biography. Abner Doubleday, born one of three sons to Ulysses and Hester Doubleday on June 26, 1819, in Ballston Spa, N.Y., was schooled at Auburn and Cooperstown, N.Y. Doubleday planned a career in civil engineering, but in 1838 he was appointed to West Point. No one felt it important that Graves was 5 years old in 1839 and Doubleday was already at West Point. Edison. He graduated from the military academy at West Point in 1842 and was an artillery officer in the Mexican War from 1846 to 1848 and in the Seminole War in Florida from 1856 to 1858. A sign at the Doubleday Hill Monument, erected in Williamsport, Maryland to commemorate Doubleday's occupation of a hill there during the Civil War, claims he invented the game in 1835. Doubleday received some bruises and could not hold the reins of a horse for a long time.20, Doubleday’s bravery and that of his troops at Antietam earned him promotion to major general of U.S. Under the rules of engagement, the Fort Sumter garrison was allowed to vacate the fortress. Research on Gumpert’s work was provided by Mark Pattison. Abner Doubleday, (born June 26, 1819, Ballston Spa, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 26, 1893, Mendham, N.J.), U.S. Army officer, once thought to be the inventor of baseball. [17], Doubleday Field is a 9,791-seat baseball stadium named for Abner Doubleday, located in Cooperstown, New York, near the Baseball Hall of Fame. Perhaps this part of the fable involved a case of mistaken identity. In 1871 he commanded the 24th U.S. Infantry, an all African-American regiment with headquarters at Fort McKavett, Texas. [7], Doubleday initially served in coastal garrisons and then in the Mexican–American War from 1846 to 1848 and the Seminole Wars from 1856 to 1858. The Mills Commission, chaired by Abraham G. Mills, the fourth president of the National League, was appointed in 1905 to determine the origin of baseball. Reach, a former Philadelphia Athletics player and the owner of Reach Sporting Goods; George Wright, a former player with the Cincinnati Red Stockings; and James E. Sullivan, president of the Amateur Athletic Union.35, The commission’s decision, released in 1908, stated that Abner Doubleday invented baseball at Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. In the actions at Brawner's farm, just before the Second Battle of Bull Run, he took the initiative to send two of his regiments to reinforce Brigadier General John Gibbon's brigade against a larger Confederate force, fighting it to a standstill. [23], Mendham Borough and Mendham Township, New Jersey has held a municipal holiday known as "Abner Doubleday Day" for numerous years in the General's honor[24] and commissioned a plaque near the site of his home in the borough in 1998, even though the borough was known as Mendham Township back then. [15], There is a monument to Doubleday at Gettysburg erected by his men, admirers, and the state of New York. 9 Letter to Bert Gumpert from Kenneth W. Rapp, acting chief, US Military Academy Archives, February 11, 1977. … In the polarized political atmosphere of the Army of the Potomac, it suited Meade to believe that this constituted a very good reason to yank backward one of the better-known Republican abolitionists in the army.”28, On the third day of the battle Doubleday’s troops were stationed on Cemetery Ridge and helped fight off Pickett’s Charge. His father was a representative of Auburn, New York in the United States Congress, a publisher of newspapers and books, and fought in the War of 1812. Frank Doubleday, founder of the Doubleday publishing empire, was also a distant cousin. He died on January 26, 1893 at Medham, New Jersey. He attended school at Auburn and Cooperstown, where he prepared for a career in civil engineering. At his death, Doubleday left many letters and papers, none of which describe baseball or give any suggestion that he considered himself a prominent person in the evolution of the game, and his New York Times obituary did not mention the game at all. (Personal initiative was required since his division commander, Brig. Doubleday died in 1893, long after baseball had become a professional sport of national scope, so if he had invented it, you figure he or someone who knew him would’ve said at … Despite his actions in the Civil War, Doubleday is most famous for "inventing" baseball. As a child, Abner was very short. He and his wife, Mary, retired to Mendham, New Jersey. If Doubleday were still alive he would likely wonder why his name is connected with baseball and not with his participation in the Civil War battles including Fort Sumter, Second Manassas, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg.38. He was also a Union general at the Battle of Gettysburg. Doubleday served in the Mexican War and, during the 1850s, in a campaign against the Seminole Indians in Florida. Abner Doubleday, died 1812 Abner Doubleday 1812 Abner Doubleday was born on date , at birth place , to Elisha Doubleday and Hannah Doubleday (born Bayley) . [5] He was wounded in the neck on the second day of Gettysburg and received a brevet promotion to colonel in the regular army for his service. Seven of those brigades sustained casualties that ranged from 35 to 50 percent, indicating the ferocity of the Union defense. Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893)[1] was a career United States Army officer and Union major general in the American Civil War. They had no children. In the 1870s, he was listed in the New York business directory as lawyer. [21], Doubleday Field at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, where the Army Black Knights play at Johnson Stadium, is named in Doubleday's honor.[22]. In 1858 he was transferred to Fort Moultrie in Charleston Harbor serving under Colonel John L. Gardner. A Myth and Legend Greater than Gettysburg: Abner Doubleday and Baseball 16 Abner Doubleday, Reminiscences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie: In 1860-61 (New York: Harper, 1876), 126. Doubleday never forgave Meade, and his career with the Army of the Potomac was over.27 Allen C. Guelzo, in Gettysburg: The Last Invasion, writes, “The written update (General John) Hancock sent back to Meade from Gettysburg included a brief statement – “Howard says that Doubleday’s command gave way” – which became fixed in Meade’s mind as proof that Doubleday had lost all control of I Corps and somehow caused the collapse of both the I and the XI Corps. Thanks to Mark Pattison for providing information on Gumpert’s work on Doubleday. Abner Doubleday was born to Ulysses F. Doubleday and Hester Donnelly, in Ballston Spa, New York, on 26th June 1819. Among the members of the honor guard at his funeral in New York was a man named Abraham Mills who would play a major role in Doubleday’s future fame. General Abner and Mary Doubleday He entered the United States Military Academy 1 Sep 1838 and graduated 1 Jul … )[8] His men were routed when they encountered Major General James Longstreet's corps, but by the following day, August 30, he took command of the division when Hatch was wounded, and he led his men to cover the retreat of the Union Army. 4 Bert Gumpert, Abner Doubleday (unpublished manuscript). 19 Genealogytrails.com, West Point bios 1842 class. Abner Doubleday is the mythical \"inventor\" of baseball. Doubleday was also the author of two published books on his Civil War experiences. … I was hit and pitched over my horse’s neck by a piece of shell which struck me in the back of the neck. He assumed command of the corps after John F. Reynolds was killed, and his troops fought well but had to withdraw to Cemetery Hill. Abner Doubleday was born at Ballston Spa, Saratoga County, New York, on June 26, 1819, to Ulysses F. Doubleday and Hester (Donnelly) Doubleday.2 Doubleday’s ancestors participated in the American Revolution; his paternal grandfather fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, served at Valley Forge, and fought in the Battle of Stony Point (New York) in 1779. He saw action at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in December 1862 and Chancellorsville May 2-4. Doubleday was posted to the garrison at Fort Moultrie at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1858, an assignment that had a huge influence on his military career.13 In the 1850s there was a huge split in the Army over slavery. He fired the first shot in defense of Fort Sumter, the opening battle of the war, and had a pivotal role in the early fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg. His last-year scores were 26th in Engineering; 29th in Ethics; 30th in Infantry Tactics; 32nd in Artillery; and 32nd in Mineralogy and Geology. Major Anderson remained in the Union Army, and Doubleday remarked that he was in a cruel situation.16, The Southerners opened fire on Sumter during the early morning hours of April 12, and Anderson offered only token resistance. When his corps commander, Major General John F. Reynolds, was killed very early in the fighting, Doubleday found himself in command of the corps at 10:50 am. Artillery. [11] In recent years, biographers have turned the nickname into an insult, incorrectly claiming "Forty-Eight Hours" was coined to highlight Doubleday's supposed incompetence and slowness to act.[11]. [5], Doubleday again led the division, now assigned to the I Corps of the Army of the Potomac, after South Mountain, where Hatch was wounded again. Another prominent member was Thomas A. He died in New York on January 25 th 1893, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. The man once thought to have invented baseball was a United States Army officer named Abner Doubleday. Mary died on March 13, 1907. During his first year he stood 30th out of 85 plebes. Doubleday was born in Ballston Spa, New York in 1819 and worked as a surveyor for railroads before attending the US Military Academy at West Point. The character organizes the first game of baseball between the six main characters and a group of Chinese immigrants, creating the rules as he goes, primarily to allow him to win. Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893) was a career United States Army officer and Union major general in the American Civil War. 15-Dec-1792, d. 10-Mar-1866) Mistress: Hester Donnelly Doubleday (b. He was not glamorous. "[5] He was wounded when an artillery shell exploded near his horse, throwing him to the ground in a violent fall. [12], Doubleday died of heart disease in 1893. He was an official scorer for the New Yankees but was also involved in the Baseball Writers Association of America. Having acquired the “evidence” they needed, no one bothered to check further with Graves. He died on January 26, 1893. Doubleday spent much of his time writing. Join SABR’s Golden Lineup to help us celebrate our 50th Anniversary! Mills had been president of the National League from 1882 to 1884. He fired the first shot in defense of Fort Sumter, the opening battle of the war, and had a pivotal role in … [4] Abner spent his childhood in Auburn and later was sent to Cooperstown to live with his uncle and attend a private preparatory high school. He published two important works on the Civil War: Reminiscences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie (1876), and Chancellorsville and Gettysburg (1882), the latter being a volume of the series Campaigns of the Civil War. The committee's final report, on December 30, 1907, stated, in part, that "the first scheme for playing baseball, according to the best evidence obtainable to date, was devised by Abner Doubleday at Cooperstown, New York, in 1839." [6] In 1852, he married Mary Hewitt of Baltimore, the daughter of a local lawyer. The mythology remains strong today, but most serious baseball historians believe the game comes from England and other ball and bat games in prehistory.6. In his sophomore year Doubleday scored third in Drawing; 21st in Mathematics; 29th in English Grammar and 46th in French. Emily Gumpert assisted with this project as well. During this time he was promoted to brigadier general of U.S. In the movie The Ridiculous 6, Doubleday is portrayed by John Turturro. He is credited in some circles as one of the fathers of baseball, but that has long since been debunked. Essay by George B. Kirsch, United States Congress Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, List of American Civil War generals (Union), "The Doubleday myth is Cooperstown's gain: Pastoral village has become the heart of baseball folklore", "Featured Monument: Major-General Abner Doubleday Monument", "Cooperstown Connection: Doubleday Field, A Diamond in the Pasture", "Baseball Hall of Fame Game in Cooperstown will end after this year", https://baseballhall.org/about-the-hall/history/history-of-doubleday-field, "1 Thing We Love About Morris: Baseball spring training", "Abner Doubleday's presence still felt in Ballston Spa", Abner Doubleday and Theosophy in America: 1879–1884, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Abner_Doubleday&oldid=993776304, American military personnel of the Mexican–American War, People of New York (state) in the American Civil War, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 12:51. [5], On July 2, 1863, Army of the Potomac commander Maj. Gen. George G. Meade replaced Doubleday with Major General John Newton, a more junior officer from another corps. Bert Gumpert was an official scorer for the New York Yankees and a member of the Baseball Writers Association of America. Gen. Rufus King, was incapacitated by an epileptic seizure at the time. / Died: 26 January 1893: How many years did Abner Doubleday live? Captain Abner Doubleday was born at Ballston Spa, New York, in 1819, and attended schools at Auburn and Cooperstown. Volunteers. His family lived in a tiny house, and they … Overall, Doubleday stood number 19 in a class of 76 members; many first-year students did not make it through the plebe year. When did Abner Doubleday die? Hatch. For the morale of the men, he is said to have provisioned balls and bats for the men. This reputation was not glamorous. 23 James M. 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