2 u�����/�_$\�B�Cv�< 5]�s.,4�&�y�Ux~xw-bEDCĻH����G��KwF�G�E�GME{E�EK�X,Y��F�Z� �={$vr����K���� Distributed Database Management System (DDBMS) is a type of DBMS which manages a number of databases hoisted at diversified locations and interconnected through a computer network. Control of distributed systems is in need of much deeper development than is so far available in the literature. Download Tutorials point Full pdf of Distributed Database Management System for free from below link Click here: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1a4Pn1DLjvXSLcRahuy00tdUX_FUAAD0X These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed 4/64 6/23/2020 Operating System - Quick Guide - Tutorialspoint systems. The following are the types of Distributed Database Management System: Homogeneous DDBMS. endobj . /SMask /None>> 4�.0,` �3p� ��H�.Hi@�A>� /Producer (�� w k h t m l t o p d f) /Type /ExtGState . 7 3. /Creator (��) Distributed Database Management System (DDBMS) is a type of DBMS which manages a number of databases hoisted at diversified locations and interconnected through a computer network. /CreationDate (D:20150930144921-05'00') o A distributed system is a collection of independent computers that appear to the users of the system as a single coherent system. Cuts of a Distributed Computation 7. Distributed Mutual Exclusion Mutual exclusion ⌧ensures that concurrent processes have serialized access to shared resources -the critical section problem . x�TMo1�ﯘ��o��6E"�­�J(�������7ޏ�Ѭ����3o����hG�'Y���~�����n�{C�=����@��v�m�Js��K%f��� w�Gz���q�� 5 0 obj . endobj You can download the PDF of this wonderful tutorial by paying a nominal price of $9.99. /Type /XObject /Length 10 0 R stream 12 Disadvantages Of Database Management System (DBMS) + PDF: DBMS is one of the best system to maintain records for Big firms and there are lots of advantages of Database Management System.But still it has some disadvantages that are … Most large-scale systems have a hierarchical structure. /Title (�� S o f t w a r e A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d D e s i g n D i s t r i b u t e d A r c h i t e c t u r e) If one site fails in a distributed system, the … 2612 a distributed system. Distributed Systems Pdf Notes >> The servers ne… system will be referred to as a distributed system. 300 million years ago there were 400 days in the year ;-) ! . 4 0 obj [ /ICCBased 10 0 R ] "1Aa�� ? Middleware Systems Definition: Middleware is software that enables interprocess communication. Techniques for developing distributed systems focus on integrating many computing devices to act as a coordinated computational resource. But it must be reliable. Distributed Systems Fö 5 - 1 Petru Eles, IDA, LiTH TIME AND STATE IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1. If you have any doubts please refer to the JNTU Syllabus Book. O*��?�����f�����`ϳ�g���C/����O�ϩ�+F�F�G�Gό���z����ˌ��ㅿ)����ѫ�~w��gb���k��?Jި�9���m�d���wi獵�ޫ�?�����c�Ǒ��O�O���?w| ��x&mf������ The nodes in the distributed systems can be arranged in the form of client/server systems or peer to peer systems. x��wTS��Ͻ7��" %�z �;HQ�I�P��&vDF)VdT�G�"cE��b� �P��QDE�݌k �5�ޚ��Y�����g�}׺ P���tX�4�X���\���X��ffG�D���=���HƳ��.�d��,�P&s���"7C$ the server. -These represent various properties that distributed systems should have. Distributed Systems - tutorialspoint.com Blockchain Tutorial. ⌧At any point in time, only one process can be executing in its critical section. The pre-requisites are significant programming experience with a language such as C++ or Java, a basic understanding of networking, and data structures & algorithms. Causal Ordering of Messages 5. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB Kangasharju: Distributed Systems 4 Measuring Time ! CONTENTS vi II Sharedmemory112 15Model113 15.1 Atomicregisters. Server− This is the second process that receives the request, carries it out, and sends a reply to the client. /SA true >> endobj endobj It provides mechanisms so that the distribution remains oblivious to the … Global States and their Consistency 6. It provides mechanisms so that the distribution remains oblivious to the … %PDF-1.4 /Subtype /Image stream 2 0 obj Logical (Virtual) Time we cannot in general use physical time to determine the order of any 2 events can use a scheme based on causality to determine order of events [Lamport, 1978] if a →b (event a causes event b), we can say C(a) > /Font << /TT2 9 0 R . Distributed System Prof. Dipak Ramoliya | 2160710 – Distributed Operating System 1 1) Define Distributed Operating System and Explain Goals of Distributed System. stream %PDF-1.3 . /Filter /DCTDecode endobj ")$+*($''-2@7-0=0''8L9=CEHIH+6OUNFT@GHE�� C !!E. 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Details about these are as follows: Client− This is the first process that issues a request to the second process i.e. /CA 1.0 A1�v�jp ԁz�N�6p\W� p�G@ ���� JFIF �� C Client Server Computing - tutorialspoint.com A distributed system contains multiple nodes that are physically separate but linked together using the network. endobj endobj 657 v�Gք�.G�4ӻ��Cr�o[�t�����f����#��pG�!�۬j}���M. /Width 600 ��.3\����r���Ϯ�_�Yq*���©�L��_�w�ד������+��]�e�������D��]�cI�II�OA��u�_�䩔���)3�ѩ�i�����B%a��+]3='�/�4�0C��i��U�@ёL(sYf����L�H�$�%�Y�j��gGe��Q�����n�����~5f5wug�v����5�k��֮\۹Nw]������m mH���Fˍe�n���Q�Q��`h����B�BQ�-�[l�ll��f��jۗ"^��b���O%ܒ��Y}W�����������w�vw����X�bY^�Ю�]�����W�Va[q`i�d��2���J�jGէ������{�����׿�m���>���Pk�Am�a�����꺿g_D�H��G�G��u�;��7�7�6�Ʊ�q�o���C{��P3���8!9������-?��|������gKϑ���9�w~�Bƅ��:Wt>���ҝ����ˁ��^�r�۽��U��g�9];}�}��������_�~i��m��p���㭎�}��]�/���}������.�{�^�=�}����^?�z8�h�c��' Preview Distributed DBMS … ��K0ށi���A����B�ZyCAP8�C���@��&�*���CP=�#t�]���� 4�}���a � ��ٰ;G���Dx����J�>���� ,�_“@��FX�DB�X$!k�"��E�����H�q���a���Y��bVa�bJ0՘c�VL�6f3����bձ�X'�?v 6��-�V`�`[����a�;���p~�\2n5��׌���� �&�x�*���s�b|!� Download Byzantine Agreement Problem In Distributed System Tutorialspoint pdf. With resource sharing facility user at one site may be able to use the resources available at another. • In distributed systems, we’d like all the different nodes to have the same notion of time, but – quartz oscillators oscillate at slightly different frequencies (time, temperature, manufacture) • Hence clocks tick at different rates: – create ever-widening gap in perceived time – this is called clock drift Traditionally time measured astronomically ! endstream Distributed systems (Tanenbaum, Ch. It provides an API that isolates the application code from the underlying network communication formats and protocols (FAPs). The advantages of distributed systems are following. /Height 332 . ߏƿ'� Zk�!� $l$T����4Q��Ot"�y�\b)���A�I&N�I�$R$)���TIj"]&=&�!��:dGrY@^O�$� _%�?P�(&OJEB�N9J�@y@yC�R �n�X����ZO�D}J}/G�3���ɭ���k��{%O�חw�_.�'_!J����Q�@�S���V�F��=�IE���b�b�b�b��5�Q%�����O�@��%�!BӥyҸ�M�:�e�0G7��ӓ����� e%e[�(����R�0`�3R��������4�����6�i^��)��*n*|�"�f����LUo�՝�m�O�0j&jaj�j��.��ϧ�w�ϝ_4����갺�z��j���=���U�4�5�n�ɚ��4ǴhZ�Z�Z�^0����Tf%��9�����-�>�ݫ=�c��Xg�N��]�. << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Resources 6 0 R /Contents 4 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 720 540] 1) - Architectures, goal, challenges - Where our solutions are applicable Synchronization: Time, coordination, decision making (Ch. These database management systems are much easier to handle and the database can even be scaled if required. �o�x�1���/���r�$�7���� h��Xk]�y5W҃կj>�q����S��wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��" �_��K�bx\t�eae������ܽ��h(���7����}��S���[ţ�����O�:� /9,C�ec?��yڙѱ��-�C�������j�:0�f��x��%f��#.S��� ��r�zae�+���!8%D'����a���9L=0����L}�������LJ��0��p����YpJ�&>�N _��� �yc��r�za8}NSL,�%D'��c���)��\�����W�1�B{X�����NS���. The Basics What is a distributed system? A distributed system is a collection of independent computers that appear to the users of the system as a single computer. In the later part of the chapter, we go on to study the factors that lead to distributed databases, its advantages and disadvantages. . . [7A�\�SwBOK/X/_�Q�>Q�����G�[��� �`�A�������a�a��c#����*�Z�;�8c�q��>�[&���I�I��MS���T`�ϴ�k�h&4�5�Ǣ��YY�F֠9�=�X���_,�,S-�,Y)YXm�����Ěk]c}džj�c�Φ�浭�-�v��};�]���N����"�&�1=�x����tv(��}�������'{'��I�ߝY�)� Σ��-r�q�r�.d.�_xp��Uە�Z���M׍�v�m���=����+K�G�ǔ����^���W�W����b�j�>:>�>�>�v��}/�a��v���������O8� � Vector Clocks 4. . 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11 0 obj Your contribution will go a long way in helping us serve more readers. 1 0 obj Prerequisites This tutorial is an advanced topic that focuses of a type of database system. /SM 0.02 << /Length 14 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> 7) Chapters refer to Tanenbaum book Kangasharju: Distributed Systems … These processors are referred as sites, nodes, computers, and so on. endstream CIS 505, Spring 2007 Distributed Systems 3 Examples The world wide web – information, resource sharing Clusters, Network of workstations Distributed manufacturing system … . . Processors in a distributed system may vary in size and function. << /Length 11 0 R /N 3 /Alternate /DeviceRGB /Filter /FlateDecode >> Shared variables (semaphores) cannot be used in a distributed system endobj Problem: Earth’s rotation is slowing down ! . 4 0 obj This is a challenging goal to achieve because of the complexity of the interactions between simultaneously running components. >> Distributed computing now encom-passes many of the activities occurring in today’s computer and communications world. . << . Middleware represents the confluence of two key areas of information technology (IT): distributed systems and advanced software engineering. [/Pattern /DeviceRGB] >> >> bachelor’s degree in Computer Science, particularly if they have opted for distributed systems or distributed database systems as a subject. In this architecture, the application is modelled as a set of services that are provided by servers and a set of clients that use these services. The users of a true distributed system should not know (or care) on which machine (or machines) their programs are running, where their files are stored, and so on. endobj _��� �+���!=�,x}NSL'��a酗��c����L}�ǖ<>�)�����0��˂W�1�BpJ�&>�Oc�S��� ��r�zae�+���!8%D'���;0�r�V. Indeed, distributed computing appears in quite diverse application areas: The Internet, wireless communication, cloud or parallel computing, multi-core /ca 1.0 x��I�G���+R��CZC�� �`K��xD�kN���@�����YUdWwk�V�ˋ���>���s���6y�����_����J~�!���}7ͻ��]�o�7�Ǧ� ���M�=���}ל�Mw�mh���y�R�ÐQз��{4��������d�HӦ�EB[lj����[��5B�r:4�Q*�����P����5����7�`�_��)o��ػ|,C�TZ7�������_���l��{��k�}�Ƿ��!#���0*�)������]~z>��:��͛ݸͻS�|��7��(c�|�g;�o�f��nF�l�����2�8[|/��}f��鎇�����F��K RxJS, ggplot2, Python Data Persistence, Caffe2, PyBrain, Python Data Access, H2O, Colab, Theano, Flutter, KNime, Mean.js, Weka, Solidity . . Must all output that byzantine agreement problem in system tutorialspoint pay attention to Observers and that, agreement problem Distributed Systems PPT | PDF | Presentation Download: There has been a great revolution in computer systems.In the initial days, computer systems were huge and also very expensive. A distributed system can be much larger and more powerful given the combined capabilities of the distributed components, than combinations of stand-alone systems. 5) Replicas and consistency (Ch. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Speedup the exchange of data with one another via electronic mail. . It should be clear by now that very few distributed systems are currently used in a production environ- ment. A DFS manages set of dispersed storage devices! 7 0 obj Transit of the sun (highest point in the sky) ! 3 0 obj Trends in distributed systems • Mobile & ubiquitous computing – Small and portable devices are possible to be used within distributed systems • E.g. . Consequently, it requires students to have a reasonably good knowledge on the elementary concepts of DBMS. . Ⱦ�h���s�2z���\�n�LA"S���dr%�,�߄l��t� In a homogeneous DDBMS, the database management systems across all locations are uniform and based on the same data model. Because of this reason few firms had less number of computers and those systems were operated independently as there was a lack of knowledge to connect them. . Note :-These notes are according to the R09 Syllabus book of JNTU.In R13 and R15,8-units of R09 syllabus are combined into 5-units in R13 and R15 syllabus. Lamport’s Logical Clocks 3. Time in Distributed Systems 2. The client-server architecture is the most common distributed system architecture which decomposes the system into two major subsystems or logical processes − 1. Distributed file system (DFS) – a distributed implementation of the classical time-sharing model of a file system, where multiple users share files and storage resources.! area of distributed systems and networks. Download Byzantine Agreement Problem In Distributed System Tutorialspoint doc. . y principles of distributed computing to cop e with the absence of global state and time. << Introduction to Distributed Systems Audience and Pre-Requisites This tutorial covers the basics of distributed systems design. %��������� Days get longer and longer ! 2. �FV>2 u�����/�_$\�B�Cv�< 5]�s.,4�&�y�Ux~xw-bEDCĻH����G��KwF�G�E�GME{E�EK�X,Y��F�Z� �={$vr����K���� Distributed Database Management System (DDBMS) is a type of DBMS which manages a number of databases hoisted at diversified locations and interconnected through a computer network. Control of distributed systems is in need of much deeper development than is so far available in the literature. Download Tutorials point Full pdf of Distributed Database Management System for free from below link Click here: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1a4Pn1DLjvXSLcRahuy00tdUX_FUAAD0X These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed 4/64 6/23/2020 Operating System - Quick Guide - Tutorialspoint systems. The following are the types of Distributed Database Management System: Homogeneous DDBMS. endobj . /SMask /None>> 4�.0,` �3p� ��H�.Hi@�A>� /Producer (�� w k h t m l t o p d f) /Type /ExtGState . 7 3. /Creator (��) Distributed Database Management System (DDBMS) is a type of DBMS which manages a number of databases hoisted at diversified locations and interconnected through a computer network. /CreationDate (D:20150930144921-05'00') o A distributed system is a collection of independent computers that appear to the users of the system as a single coherent system. Cuts of a Distributed Computation 7. Distributed Mutual Exclusion Mutual exclusion ⌧ensures that concurrent processes have serialized access to shared resources -the critical section problem . x�TMo1�ﯘ��o��6E"�­�J(�������7ޏ�Ѭ����3o����hG�'Y���~�����n�{C�=����@��v�m�Js��K%f��� w�Gz���q�� 5 0 obj . endobj You can download the PDF of this wonderful tutorial by paying a nominal price of $9.99. /Type /XObject /Length 10 0 R stream 12 Disadvantages Of Database Management System (DBMS) + PDF: DBMS is one of the best system to maintain records for Big firms and there are lots of advantages of Database Management System.But still it has some disadvantages that are … Most large-scale systems have a hierarchical structure. /Title (�� S o f t w a r e A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d D e s i g n D i s t r i b u t e d A r c h i t e c t u r e) If one site fails in a distributed system, the … 2612 a distributed system. Distributed Systems Pdf Notes >> The servers ne… system will be referred to as a distributed system. 300 million years ago there were 400 days in the year ;-) ! . 4 0 obj [ /ICCBased 10 0 R ] "1Aa�� ? Middleware Systems Definition: Middleware is software that enables interprocess communication. Techniques for developing distributed systems focus on integrating many computing devices to act as a coordinated computational resource. But it must be reliable. Distributed Systems Fö 5 - 1 Petru Eles, IDA, LiTH TIME AND STATE IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1. If you have any doubts please refer to the JNTU Syllabus Book. O*��?�����f�����`ϳ�g���C/����O�ϩ�+F�F�G�Gό���z����ˌ��ㅿ)����ѫ�~w��gb���k��?Jި�9���m�d���wi獵�ޫ�?�����c�Ǒ��O�O���?w| ��x&mf������ The nodes in the distributed systems can be arranged in the form of client/server systems or peer to peer systems. x��wTS��Ͻ7��" %�z �;HQ�I�P��&vDF)VdT�G�"cE��b� �P��QDE�݌k �5�ޚ��Y�����g�}׺ P���tX�4�X���\���X��ffG�D���=���HƳ��.�d��,�P&s���"7C$ the server. -These represent various properties that distributed systems should have. Distributed Systems - tutorialspoint.com Blockchain Tutorial. ⌧At any point in time, only one process can be executing in its critical section. The pre-requisites are significant programming experience with a language such as C++ or Java, a basic understanding of networking, and data structures & algorithms. Causal Ordering of Messages 5. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB Kangasharju: Distributed Systems 4 Measuring Time ! CONTENTS vi II Sharedmemory112 15Model113 15.1 Atomicregisters. Server− This is the second process that receives the request, carries it out, and sends a reply to the client. /SA true >> endobj endobj It provides mechanisms so that the distribution remains oblivious to the … Global States and their Consistency 6. It provides mechanisms so that the distribution remains oblivious to the … %PDF-1.4 /Subtype /Image stream 2 0 obj Logical (Virtual) Time we cannot in general use physical time to determine the order of any 2 events can use a scheme based on causality to determine order of events [Lamport, 1978] if a →b (event a causes event b), we can say C(a) > /Font << /TT2 9 0 R . Distributed System Prof. Dipak Ramoliya | 2160710 – Distributed Operating System 1 1) Define Distributed Operating System and Explain Goals of Distributed System. stream %PDF-1.3 . /Filter /DCTDecode endobj ")$+*($''-2@7-0=0''8L9=CEHIH+6OUNFT@GHE�� C !!E. 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Details about these are as follows: Client− This is the first process that issues a request to the second process i.e. /CA 1.0 A1�v�jp ԁz�N�6p\W� p�G@ ���� JFIF �� C Client Server Computing - tutorialspoint.com A distributed system contains multiple nodes that are physically separate but linked together using the network. endobj endobj 657 v�Gք�.G�4ӻ��Cr�o[�t�����f����#��pG�!�۬j}���M. /Width 600 ��.3\����r���Ϯ�_�Yq*���©�L��_�w�ד������+��]�e�������D��]�cI�II�OA��u�_�䩔���)3�ѩ�i�����B%a��+]3='�/�4�0C��i��U�@ёL(sYf����L�H�$�%�Y�j��gGe��Q�����n�����~5f5wug�v����5�k��֮\۹Nw]������m mH���Fˍe�n���Q�Q��`h����B�BQ�-�[l�ll��f��jۗ"^��b���O%ܒ��Y}W�����������w�vw����X�bY^�Ю�]�����W�Va[q`i�d��2���J�jGէ������{�����׿�m���>���Pk�Am�a�����꺿g_D�H��G�G��u�;��7�7�6�Ʊ�q�o���C{��P3���8!9������-?��|������gKϑ���9�w~�Bƅ��:Wt>���ҝ����ˁ��^�r�۽��U��g�9];}�}��������_�~i��m��p���㭎�}��]�/���}������.�{�^�=�}����^?�z8�h�c��' Preview Distributed DBMS … ��K0ށi���A����B�ZyCAP8�C���@��&�*���CP=�#t�]���� 4�}���a � ��ٰ;G���Dx����J�>���� ,�_“@��FX�DB�X$!k�"��E�����H�q���a���Y��bVa�bJ0՘c�VL�6f3����bձ�X'�?v 6��-�V`�`[����a�;���p~�\2n5��׌���� �&�x�*���s�b|!� Download Byzantine Agreement Problem In Distributed System Tutorialspoint pdf. With resource sharing facility user at one site may be able to use the resources available at another. • In distributed systems, we’d like all the different nodes to have the same notion of time, but – quartz oscillators oscillate at slightly different frequencies (time, temperature, manufacture) • Hence clocks tick at different rates: – create ever-widening gap in perceived time – this is called clock drift Traditionally time measured astronomically ! endstream Distributed systems (Tanenbaum, Ch. It provides an API that isolates the application code from the underlying network communication formats and protocols (FAPs). The advantages of distributed systems are following. /Height 332 . ߏƿ'� Zk�!� $l$T����4Q��Ot"�y�\b)���A�I&N�I�$R$)���TIj"]&=&�!��:dGrY@^O�$� _%�?P�(&OJEB�N9J�@y@yC�R �n�X����ZO�D}J}/G�3���ɭ���k��{%O�חw�_.�'_!J����Q�@�S���V�F��=�IE���b�b�b�b��5�Q%�����O�@��%�!BӥyҸ�M�:�e�0G7��ӓ����� e%e[�(����R�0`�3R��������4�����6�i^��)��*n*|�"�f����LUo�՝�m�O�0j&jaj�j��.��ϧ�w�ϝ_4����갺�z��j���=���U�4�5�n�ɚ��4ǴhZ�Z�Z�^0����Tf%��9�����-�>�ݫ=�c��Xg�N��]�. << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Resources 6 0 R /Contents 4 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 720 540] 1) - Architectures, goal, challenges - Where our solutions are applicable Synchronization: Time, coordination, decision making (Ch. These database management systems are much easier to handle and the database can even be scaled if required. �o�x�1���/���r�$�7���� h��Xk]�y5W҃կj>�q����S��wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��"wZ�ɪ���5���] �u���tH��ֻ��j���Mk��&��Pz��" �_��K�bx\t�eae������ܽ��h(���7����}��S���[ţ�����O�:� /9,C�ec?��yڙѱ��-�C�������j�:0�f��x��%f��#.S��� ��r�zae�+���!8%D'����a���9L=0����L}�������LJ��0��p����YpJ�&>�N _��� �yc��r�za8}NSL,�%D'��c���)��\�����W�1�B{X�����NS���. The Basics What is a distributed system? A distributed system is a collection of independent computers that appear to the users of the system as a single computer. In the later part of the chapter, we go on to study the factors that lead to distributed databases, its advantages and disadvantages. . . [7A�\�SwBOK/X/_�Q�>Q�����G�[��� �`�A�������a�a��c#����*�Z�;�8c�q��>�[&���I�I��MS���T`�ϴ�k�h&4�5�Ǣ��YY�F֠9�=�X���_,�,S-�,Y)YXm�����Ěk]c}džj�c�Φ�浭�-�v��};�]���N����"�&�1=�x����tv(��}�������'{'��I�ߝY�)� Σ��-r�q�r�.d.�_xp��Uە�Z���M׍�v�m���=����+K�G�ǔ����^���W�W����b�j�>:>�>�>�v��}/�a��v���������O8� � Vector Clocks 4. . 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